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FYI-I thought this was pretty informative...

The Wide Variations in the Black-White Higher Education Gap in America's Largest Cities

Compared to blacks in other cities, African Americans in San Francisco and Los Angeles are a highly educated group. In fact, African Americans in Los Angeles are almost as likely as whites in the city to hold a college degree. This result is undoubtedly due to California's strong commitment over the past 30 years to public higher education for people of all economic and ethnic groups.
Here are the high school and college completion records in a number of America's largest cities.

In the Spring 2003 issue of JBHE, we compared the differences in high school completion and college graduation rates of blacks and whites in the nation's 25 most populous states.

Now we present parallel information comparing black-white performances in educational attainment among adults who reside in the nation's 15 most populous cities or metropolitan areas.

According to recently available data, 79.2 percent of all African Americans in the United States over the age of 25 have a high school diploma. Unexpectedly, we discover that African Americans who reside in the nation's 15 largest metropolitan areas tend to have a higher level of educational attainment than African Americans generally in the United States. In 12 of the 15 largest metropolitan areas in the nation, the percentage of African Americans who have graduated from high school is higher than the national average for blacks. This is true despite the fact that many of the predominantly black schools in the inner city are of inferior quality and offer little incentive for blacks to go to or stay in school. Here it must be conceded that the poor quality of these inner-city schools may in fact permit some black students who would have dropped out of a higher quality suburban or rural high school to remain in school and receive a diploma. Also, if there is a high dropout rate of black students in some central city schools, this is perhaps offset by the very high rate of high school completions achieved by the increasingly larger number of black students in suburban districts that for statistical purposes are included in the metropolitan area.

There are many reasons why people "” both black and white "” who live in cities show relatively high levels of educational attainment compared to rural residents. Contrary to general belief, urban residents tend to have more educational choices during their high school years and therefore they may be more likely than rural residents to remain in school. For example, many cities have specialized public high schools for students interested in science, the performing arts, studio arts, vocational education, film, and other areas of study. In addition, cities have a large variety of private, parochial, and religious schools that offer even more in the way of educational options. Many rural areas have only one high school, public or private. This may lead to a comparatively lower level of high school completion in these areas. In addition, residents of rural areas may be inclined to leave high school in order to work on family farms.

Also, blacks in inner-city metropolitan areas may be more inclined than African Americans in rural areas to stay in school because of a lack of jobs in these economically depressed center-city neighborhoods. Transportation to school is also much easier for blacks who live in urban areas than it is for blacks who live in rural areas, particularly in the South. This too may lead to a greater tendency for blacks in urban areas to stay in school.

The Best-Performing Cities for African-American High School Completions

Among the 15 most heavily populated cities, San Francisco has the highest rate of black high school completions. More than 94 percent of black adults in San Francisco have completed high school. This figure is higher than the high school completion rate for whites in the nation as a whole. Blacks in Pittsburgh, Atlanta, Los Angeles, Cleveland, and Dallas also have a high rate of high school completion.

The three cities with lower high school completion rates for blacks than the national average for African Americans are New York, Boston, and Miami. These three cities are more likely than many of the other major U.S. cities to have recent black immigrants to the United States from Ethiopia, Somalia, Haiti and other island nations of the Caribbean. Many of these recent immigrants left their foreign homes before completing their high school education. When they reached our shores these immigrants were often forced to sacrifice education in order to enter the work force to support themselves and their families.

Racial Differences in African-American College Completions in the Nation's Largest Cities

Nationwide 17.2 percent of all black adults over the age of 25 have a four-year college degree. But as was the case for high school completions, in 12 of the 15 most heavily populated cities in the United States, the black college completion rate is higher than the national average.

Urban areas generally tend to have high wage jobs that attract college graduates. This is a major reason why the college completion rate for blacks in urban areas is higher than the national average.

In general there are many more higher educational opportunities for black residents of metropolitan areas. In many cases there are relatively low priced, publicly operated urban universities as well as many private institutions of higher education. As a result, young adults who live in the nation's largest cities are more likely to be able to live at home while attending college. This tends to make college more affordable.

Young adults in rural areas must often pay room and board to attend a college far from home. These students also incur travel expenses to and from college, expenses that need not be borne by urban residents who want to attend college.

Cities With High Percentages of College-Educated Blacks

Once again, among the nation's 15 most heavily populated cities, San Francisco leads in college completions by African-American adults. More than 30 percent of all adult blacks who reside in the San Francisco Bay Area are college educated. This is higher than the nationwide average for white adults. In both Atlanta and Washington, D.C., more than one quarter of all black adults hold a college degree.

The three cities with lower college completion rates for blacks than the national average for all African Americans are Detroit, Cleveland, and St. Louis. These cities tend to be older industrial cities which have not developed high-tech industries that generally attract employees with a high degree of education.

It is interesting to note that the city of Miami, which ranked last among the 15 largest cities in high school completions, has a high college completion rate for blacks. This shows a major class division among the black population in the city. Large numbers of newly arrived immigrants with low levels of education coexist with a significant presence of African Americans with college degrees who make up a prosperous middle class.

Comparing the Black-White College Completion Gap in Major Cities

Currently, the nationwide gap between the college completion rate for black and white adults is 12.2 percentage points. For black adults, 17.2 percent have a college degree compared to 29.4 percent of whites. But when we look at how blacks compare to whites in college completions in the nation's 15 most heavily populated metropolitan areas, we find that in 10 of the 15 cities, blacks perform below the national average.

It is necessary to point out that while blacks who live in large cities have on average a higher rate of college completion than blacks nationally, whites, too, who live in large cities tend to be a highly educated group.

For example, in Washington, D.C., a large number of workers of all races work in the federal bureaucracy. Therefore, in the city there is an extremely high percentage of adults who hold a college degree. Despite the fact that a quarter of all black adults in Washington, D.C., have a college degree, the city has the highest racial differential between the college completion rates of blacks and whites. More than 47 percent of all white adults in the Washington area hold a college degree.

In sharp contrast, the college completion rate for blacks and whites in the city of Los Angeles is almost identical. This small black-white gap in college completion rates is largely due to a very low percentage of college completions among Mexican American citizens in the city who are categorized as white in Census Bureau classifications. Only 6.7 percent of all Hispanic adults in the city of Los Angeles hold a college diploma. If we include only Anglo whites in the calculations for Los Angeles, the racial gap in college completions would be similar to that which occurs nationwide.

Miami and San Francisco also have small differences in the college completion rates for blacks and whites. Hispanic adults in San Francisco tend to pull down the overall average for college completions among whites, but Hispanics in Miami have a higher rate of college completion than do blacks who live in that city.

The high college completion rates of black adults and the relatively low difference in educational attainments between blacks and whites in the cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco are partly a reflection too of the superior publicly operated state system of higher education in the state of California. Over the past 35 years, the California system of higher education has provided a great opportunity for young blacks to pursue a higher education. But now the California higher educational system, which has produced amazing college completion results over the past several decades, is no longer permitted to take race into account when considering students for admission. It seems likely that in the years ahead the educational gap in college completions between blacks and whites in the large cities of California will increase.
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There are three articles all together....i'll just place them in this thread....

African Americans Continue to Flock to Graduate and Professional Schools

Since 1980 black enrollments in graduate school in the United States have more than doubled. Over the past five years the number of blacks entering graduate programs has continued to climb at a time when white enrollments have declined.
Similar gains in black enrollments in professional schools of law, medicine, and business have occurred over the past decade while white enrollments have stagnated.

A half-century ago youths of America were instructed by their elders that to make it in the world they must stay in high school and earn a diploma. A generation ago high school graduates were told, "To get a good job, you need a college education." Now the conventional wisdom is that to be successful in life, students should attend graduate or professional school.

Increasingly, black students are heeding the call to further their higher education. Black enrollments in graduate school have increased each year since 1984. In fact, since 1980 black enrollments in graduate school have more than doubled. Today there are more than 158,000 black students enrolled in graduate schools across the nation. Black enrollments in graduate school have continued to surge because historically they have been underrepresented in graduate programs. In 1980 blacks made up 5.6 percent of all students in American graduate schools. Now blacks make up 8.5 percent of all students in U.S. graduate programs, which is still well short of their percentage of the young adult population. Thus, over the past two decades, the huge surge in black enrollments in graduate school is simply a matter of continuing to catch up with their white peers. Clearly black enrollments in graduate school have increased over the past two decades because of aggressive affirmative action recruitment plans in place in many U.S. graduate schools.

Since 1980 white enrollments in graduate school also have increased. In 1980 there were slightly over one million white students enrolled in graduate school. During the recession in the early 1980s white enrollments decreased slightly. But from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s white enrollments in graduate programs increased from slightly over one million students to a high of 1,282,000 students in 1994. This was an increase of more than 28 percent.

But from 1994 to 1998 white enrollments in U.S. graduate schools declined. In these years the U.S. economy was enjoying the peak of the so-called dot-com boom. Many white college students were determined to get into business immediately after earning their bachelor's degrees in order to participate in this economic bonanza. It appears that many white students during this period decided to forgo graduate school in order to take highly paid positions at high-tech firms. On the other hand, opportunities for blacks in the dot-com economy were scarce. From the beginning, African Americans had a very small presence in high-tech industries. Thus, black college students may have been more likely than their white peers to stay in school to pursue graduate studies.

In both 1999 and 2000, the latest year for which statistics are available, there were slight increases in overall white enrollments in graduate school. As the economy began to sour in 2000 more white students seemed to have decided to stay in school rather than enter the job market.

Blacks in Professional Schools

In addition to the 158,000 blacks enrolled in graduate programs, in 2000 there were 24,000 blacks enrolled in professional schools. These professional schools include graduate programs in medicine, law, dentistry, veterinary medicine, divinity, business management, and other professional fields.

In 2000 blacks made up 7.7 percent of all students in professional schools in the United States. In 1980 blacks made up 4.6 percent of all professional school students.

Over the past decade black enrollments in professional schools have increased from 16,000 to 24,000, a rise of 50 percent. During the same period, white enrollments in professional schools actually declined slightly from 221,000 to 220,000.

Once again, affirmative action has been a major force in increasing black enrollments in professional schools. Many of the nation's top medical schools have black enrollments of 8 percent or more despite the fact that blacks make up less than 2 percent of the top scorers on the Medical College Admission Test. Five of the nation's 25 highest-ranked law schools have black enrollments of 10 percent or more. Probably the best evidence of the impact of affirmative action in professional school enrollments is at the high-ranking law, business, and medical schools in California, Texas and other states in which race-sensitive admissions have been abandoned. These states have shown significant drops in professional school enrollments. In some cases black enrollments at professionals schools in these states dropped by more than two thirds in the year in which race-sensitive admissions were abandoned
A Strange But Common-Sense Strategy to Lower the SAT Racial Scoring Gap

Black students score lower than whites on the more difficult SAT questions. But the racial scoring gap is smaller on the hard questions than it is on the easier SAT questions. As a result, one educational psychologist suggests that the SAT only ask the hardest questions. The author says that if this revision were adopted, the percentage of blacks in the top-scoring group on the SAT would triple.

The very large racial gap in scores on the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) continues to be a major barrier to increasing the number of black students enrolled in higher education. The gap, which stands at about 200 points on the standard SAT scale of 400-1600, or about 15 percent, has been persistent and has even increased slightly over the past decade.

Roy O. Freedle, a retired senior research psychologist at the Educational Testing Service, the company that devises the test questions and administers the testing program for The College Board, has a simple solution. His scoring system, if adopted, would significantly close the racial scoring gap on the SAT. Remarkably, Freedle's solution is to throw out the easy questions on the SAT and retain only the most difficult questions. According to Freedle's analysis, published in the Spring 2003 edition of the Harvard Educational Review, black students do far better relative to whites on the most difficult SAT questions than they do on the easy questions.

ETS regularly assigns a difficulty factor to each question it uses on the SAT. The easiest questions are rated 1 and the most difficult questions are rated 5. However, under the SAT scoring system easy questions count just as much as difficult questions. Freedle's analysis found that if only the 40 hardest questions on the SAT are used to determine the final score, the racial scoring gap would be reduced by at least one third. Freedle's data shows that at almost all scoring levels black students do better compared to whites on the harder questions, but perform less well compared to whites on the easier questions.

For example, Freedle's data reveals that for black and white students who score 640 on the verbal portion of the SAT, black test takers got 69.2 percent of the answers correct on the 40 questions rated most difficult. White students who scored an identical 640 on the overall test got only 68 percent of the most difficult questions correctly. This same discrepancy occurs for black and white students at each scoring level from 200 all the way up to 800. In contrast, when only easy questions are considered white students typically get more correct answers than black students. And this also is true at all scoring levels of the SAT.

Reasons Why Blacks Do Better on Hard Questions

Why do black students do better on the hard SAT questions but perform less well on the easiest questions? According to Freedle, the answer is cultural bias.

For example, Freedle points out that the difficult analogy questions on the verbal portion of the SAT use relatively uncommon words such as "anathema, sycophant, or intractable." These words are not used in everyday parlance among high school students but they are frequently used in an academic setting as vocabulary words. For the most part these words have one distinct meaning and cannot be misinterpreted by any cultural bias. Therefore, black and white students who have learned these words in school will be on a level playing field in trying to answer SAT questions that contain words such as these.

But on the other hand, Freedle says, "It is well known that common words often have many more semantic (dictionary) senses than rare words. Many high-frequency analogy words such as 'horse' and 'snake' have many dictionary entries. Various researchers have hypothesized that each cultural group assigns its own meanings to such common words to encapsulate everyday experience in its respective culture. Thus, individuals from various cultures may differ in their definitions of common words. Communities that are purportedly speaking the 'same' language may use the same words to mean different things... Thus, the cultural and lexical ambiguity that African Americans are hypothesized to experience when responding to many easy verbal items offers one promising explanation for why they do worse. Hard verbal items often involve rarely used words that are hypothesized to have fewer potential differences in interpretation across ethnic communities."

"Snake" May Have a Different Meaning to Black and White Test Takers

Let's look at Freedle's examples of easy questions that could be misinterpreted due to cultural bias. A black student in the inner city may hear the word "horse" used far more often in relation to heroin than a white suburban student who is accustomed to seeing horses in rural pastures. Similarly, a "snake" may be a reptile to a white suburban kid while it may primarily mean a deceitful person to a black kid from the city. In this way cultural nuances can affect how a student interprets what appear to be easy SAT questions using words in common everyday use.

Freedle further argues that only hard questions should be considered on the SAT because results demonstrate the highest level where a student can competently perform. This measure should give college admissions officers a better picture of the type of work a student is capable of completing successfully at the college level. Easy questions on the SAT are comparable to material that is learned in the early high school years or before and therefore do not offer a good indicator of the level of work of which a student is capable.

How would revised SAT scoring boost a black student's chance of being admitted to a selective college? Freedle's calculations show that 0.72 percent of all black test takers are among the top-scoring group on the SAT. But using the Freedle revised scoring formula in which only the most difficult questions are counted, blacks become 2.46 percent of the top-scoring group. Thus, under the Freedle scoring system, the group of black students whose academic qualifications are suitable for admission to the top colleges and universities more than triples.

Those who adhere to a strict merit principle for admission to colleges and universities must admit that an SAT with only hard questions would not violate their criteria for a fair system. All students are being judged equally on challenging academic questions and without regard to race.
Look at what is said about AA in the second article....this is the main premise racists & conservatives are fighting against...if that were not the case, they would have had beef against the white students in the UM case who scored lower than missy but were still accepted...but racists and house negroes remained eerily quiet about this...and that is why I try to rip them both a new azzhole when they come at me with that racist and self-subjugated bullshit cloaked under legitimate-sounding rhetoric....f-k them both.....

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