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The following is a comparison of the Indian Sudroid populations who are highly represented in the "untouchable" caste of modern day India and Nubians "Cush people" from Africa. Genetically, linguistically, culturally and religiously, these two groups are obviously from the same root! Bless.

AfroMan.

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"The Sudroid (Indo-African) Race
The Sudran, or Sudroid, race refers to the aboriginal populations of India. Formerly widepread over all of India, they were displaced from most of Hindustan (North India) and virtually all of the Deccan by invading Aryans. Sudroid includes the following peoples:

Sudroid

Dravidoids (speakers of Dravidian languages)
Untouchables or Avarans
Antyajas/Dalits/SC
Adivasis/ST
Vedic Shudrs (Aryanized and enslaved blacks)
They are a black race, closely related to the Africans and Australoids, as evident from -

Black skin , broad noses , thick lips and wavy-curly hair
Linguistically, all the languages are related.
Genetically they are closely related

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This ends the basic section. The advanced section is below.

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The Sudran (Indo-African) Race
Table of Contents
The unity of Sudroids, Africoids and Australoids
1. Physiognomic Similarities

1.1 Black Skin
1.2 Nose Width (Nasal Index)
1.3 Wavy-Curly Hair and Thick Lips
1.4 Prognathism
1.5 Skeletal Similarities
2. Ethnographic Evidence
2.1 Boomerang & Hunting Customs
2.2 Theological
2.3 Burial & Funerary Customs
2.4 Circumcision & Initiation Rites
2.5 Agricultural
2.6 Building Construction & Ship-Building
2.7 Inheritance
2.8 Calendar
3. Archaeological
3.1 Megalithic Cultures
3.2 Pottery : Red-and-Black Ware
4. Linguistic
5. Genetic
6. Zoological & Botanical
6.1 Reptiles
6.2 Mammals
6.3 Botanical

1. Physiognomy

1.1 Black Skin
The most evident similarity between Africans and Sudroids is their black skin colour. It often approaches deep black, and when shiny resemble tar. The Adi Dravidas (true Dravidians) of South India are black like the Africans with a slightly different hair texture [ Win.gen ].

1.2 Nasal Index
The nose of Sudroids closely resembles that of Negroids and Australoids, being very broad. In both pure black African and pure Sudroid it is often as wide as it is broad, ie. the nasal index (ratio of width to height) is 100. By contrast Caucasians are fine-nosed. The Indo-Aryan is thus very similar to the European, possessing a fine nose, while the Sudroid is related to the Africans -

Race Nasal Index Nasal Type

Arya (Indo-Aryan)

Brahman (Bengal) 70.3 fine-nosed sub-leptorrhine

Rajput 71.6 fine-nosed sub-leptorrhine

Vaisya (Jat) 68.8 fine-nosed leptorrhine

Vaisya (Bania) 79.6 medium-nosed mesorrhine

Sudroid

Dravidian (Kadian) 89.8 broad-nosed platyrrhine

Dalit (Chamar) 86.0 broad-nosed platyrrhine

Adivasi (Munda) 89.9 broad-nosed platyrrhine

Vedic Shudrs (Dom) 83.0 broad-nosed sub-platyrrhine

-- [ Ris App. III p.395 ff ]

By comparison, the French of Paris average 69.4 [ Ris 28-9 ], while pure Africans average between 90 and 100.

1.3 Wavy-Curly Hair & Thick Lips
The hair of Sudroids is wavy and often curly, with imported Africans ( eg. the Makranis, the Siddis of Sind and the Dakhin ) it is frizzy. It is a common misconception to asume all Africoids have frizzy hair; it is often curly and wavy in Nubia and Abyssinia.

Curly Hair -
Friedrich Mueller classified black races according to hair texture, classing them under the tufted-haired peoples ( Bushmen, Hottentots and Papuans ), fleece-haired peoples ( Bantu and Negro ) and wavy-haired peoples ( Hamitic, Semitic and Nuba-Fulla ).
-- [ EB `Languages of the World' ]

Another trait in common is the thick everted lips [ Arav.neg ] .

1.4 Prognathism
Pronounced prognathism is characteristic of all black races from Africa to southern India and Oceania - Australia. In addition, the teeth are relatively larger in case of Australoids and Kolarians, as well as Dravidians.

1.5 Skeletal Similarities
Long Forearm -
The forearm of Suroids and Africans are long.

Dolicocephaly -
Dolicocephaly ( long-headedness ) is common amongst Sudras. In fact, many are classed as hyperdolicocephalic. Dolicocephaly is common amongst East Africans in general ( Nilotes, Sudanic Blacks and Cushites - Hamites or Abyssinians )

2. Ethnographic Evidence

2.1 Boomerang & Hunting Customs
The boomerang is used by Dravidian abroginals, Australoids and is recorded from Egypt.

2.2 Theological
Both Africans and Dravidians held a common interest in teh cult of the Serpent and believed tn a Supreme God, who lived in aplace of peace and tranqulity. Murugan the Dravidian god of the mounatins parallels a common god in East Africa worshipped by 25 ethnic groups called Murungu, the god who resides in the mountains [ Win.gen ]

2.3 Burial & Death Rites
Burning of the dead body is a characteristic of Indo-Aryans, while burial of the dead was common to Indo-Africans. In both South India and the Western Sudan and Senegambia the dead were buried and interned in terra cotta jars [ Singh ] [ Win.gen ]

2.4 Circumcision & Initiation Rites
Circumcision, both male and female, was practiced by Dravidians and is still widely practiced in Africa.

2.5 Agricultural
Both groups use the hoe for tilling the ground, manuring the ground to fertilize crops, terracing irrrigation and canal building.

Wheat of the 6-row variety, which is found in predynastic graves in Egypt, has been discovered at Harappan sites dating much later, as late as 2300-1750 BC. On the Gangetic plain, barley was found at neolithic Hallum in Mysore state (1800 BC). Pearl millet has been found at Saurasthra and Ahar (1200-100 BC). Indian sorghum is clearly of African origin. Cultivated cotton which came from West Africa appear at Mohenjo-Daro and harrapa from 2300-1700 BC. [ Win.agri ]

2.6 Building Construction & Ship-Building
Both races used a single log or planks tied together
2.7 Inheritance
Among the ali tiravitar (Adi Dravidas, or real Dravidians), the system of inheritance passes from the uncle to his nephews, instead of his sons (maru makkal tayam) as in Africa [ Win.gen ]
2.8 Calendrical
The Dravidians and Africans used the same calendrical systema [ Win.agri ].

3. Archaeological

3.1 Megalithic Cultures
Megalithic cultures in India and Africa dating to the third millenium BC are very similar: both contain black-and-red ware, bones and pottery sarcophagi near water tanks [ Win:Agri ]. Cave paintings are also very similar, pointing to ancient contacts.

3.2 Pottery : Red-and-Black Ware
The black races are consistently associated with red-and-black pottery all over the world. Pottery of the Nubians is very similar to Dravidian pottery.

4. Linguistic

The most evident linguistic connections between African and Dravidian languages is in place-names:

Africa India

------ ------

Botswana, Bophutatswana (reg) Gondwana (region)

Ubangi (river) Bhangi (caste)

Gonder (town, reg.) Gond (tribe)

Galla (tribe) Goala (caste), Gaya (town)

Kongo (river, reg., tribe) Kongu Nadu (reg.), Kond or Khond (tribe)

Imbangala (tribe) Bangala or Bengal (tribe, reg.)

The `Congo' river and the `Kongo' tribes are cognate to the Kongu Nadu comprising the Salem tract in Tamil Nadu prior to its conquest by the Cholas [ EB 10 salem 350 ].
The suffix `-wana' is common to Bantu and Dravidian languages, thus Botswana and Bophuthatswana in southern Africa [ EB 2 botswana 412 ] [ EB 2 boph. 376 ] and Gondwana in central India [ EB 5:358 ].
The Mbangala or Imbangala warrior tribe of central Angola [ EB 6: imb. 266 ] are cognate to the Bangala tribe and the region named after them in eastern India, which later became Bengal.
The Ubangi river [ EB ubangi 12:98 ] is the largest right-bank tributary of the Congo river and flows past Bangui town (the capital of the Central African Republic). A black tribe (and later low caste) by the name of Bhangi exists in northern India. The Bangweulu is a large lake and swamp region in northeastern Zambia. In Bantu the term denotes `Large Water' [ EB 1 bangw. 868 ]
The Galla are the largest ethnic group in Ethipia, forming 40 % of the population [ EB 5 galla 87 ]. They are cattle-herders, as are the black-skinned low-caste known as Goala (cow-herders) in central India.
The Mbundu are the second-largest ethnic group of Angola [ EB 7 mbundu 986 ] while the Munda are in Eastern India.
The Ndongo tribe of the Mbundu [ EB 7 mbundu 986 ] are perhaps cognate to the Dombas or Doms of India.
The Godabas of Somalia may have given their name to the Godavari River in the Deccan.
Congates of `gond' and `gong' are widepread in Africa and Dravidia. Gonder or Gondar is the ancient capital of Ethiopia 1652-1855 as well as the surrounding region. The Gongola river is the primary tributary of the Benue River, while the Gongola basin is in northeastern Nigeria [ EB 5 gongola 359 ]. The Guang or Gonja in northern Ghana, who are descendant of Mandingos, speak the Gur and Goja languages and founded the Gonja kingdom [ EB 5 guang 532 ] The Gond are a large group of Draviidan tribes in Central India.

The Congolese linguist Th. Obenga proposed the term `Indo-African' languages in analogy with `Indo-European' [ Obenga ]. Prof. L. Homburger established close linguistic connections between Dravidian and Senegalese languages especially Fulani, as well as Kannada - Bantu and Telugu - Mande relationships [ Hom ]. Prof. Tuttle established connections between Nubian and Dravidian languages [ Tuttle ]. Prof. Lahoverty established conections between African and Dravidian languages [ Lah ]. Senegalese and Dravidian languages are closely related grammatically, structurally and lexically [ N'D ] [ Ups ]. The Upper Nile basin is considered by some scholars to be the original home of the Dravidians on linguistic grounds [ Win.gen 1118 ]

Dravidian legends mention an ancient landmass which disappeared into the Ocean. The Tamils say that it was highly populated and included large cities, now buried beneath the sea. Tamil historians have discussed this land mass in detail throughout history; eg. Ariyarkkunallar in the 12th century. Linguistic evidence indicates that the Dravidians are related to the C-group Nubians of the Western Sahara who built the Kerma empire. Since Egypt was often at war with Kerma, the connection across Lemuria seems more plausible. [Winters:Agri]

5. Genetic

The Sudroid and Africoid peoples are also genetically closely related. The genetic similarities between Africans and Sudrics include:

Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
Gene for sickle-cell anemia is common
Enzymes providing malaria resistance are present

The Kolarians (Indo-Australoids) share many genetic similarities with the Australoids and Oceanic Negroids. Genetic similarities of the Kolarians with the Australoids and Oceanic Negroids include :

Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and alcohol intolerance
A large ratio of B type blood
Rarity of Rhesus negative
Rarity of P2 gene
Rarity of A type, and especially A2
Shovel-shaped incisors are common
Low bi-zygomatic diameter

In addition, the hair is frequently reddish to blonde in childhood in the case of Australoid Blackfellows, Dravidians and Kolarians.

Genetic Studies of mtDNA of Dravidians in Andhra displayed a close similarity with African populations [ Bam ].

6. Zoological & Botanical Evidence

Zoological and Botanical similarities are numerous between animal and plant species of Africa, Australia and South India (Dravidia). This indicates that the similarity of humans extends to the plant and animal kingdoms as well. These similarities arise from either migration across the Suez and the MIddle East into India and thence to Australia, or due to submerged land bridges in the Indian Ocean.

6.1 Reptiles
Python -
The python is found from western Africa to China, Australia and the Pacific Islands. The slender reticulated python is probably the world's longest snake, often reaching 8 m ( 26 feet ) with one specimen recorded as 9.6 m in length. The Indian python is usually less than 4 m but is much thicker and sometimes reaches 8m in length. The African python often reaches 7 m while the species in West Africa ( the Ball/Royal python ) is, as expected, smaller, reaching 1.5 m. The blood python of Malaya, Sumatra and Borneo is reddish and averages 2.7 m.
-- [ EB 9 `python' 828 ]

Mangrove Snake -
The manrove snake, comprising 30 species of hte genus Boiga, is found from tropical Africa to Australia and Polynesia [ EB 7`mangr.'774 ].

6.2 Mammals
Rhinoceros -
The term denotes any of 5 species of the family Rhinocerotidae ( and sometimes includes extinct fossil genera ). These animals are found only in eastern and southern Africa and tropical Asia, lending further support to the unity of vegetation of Africa and India and indicating that recent exchange of zoo-botanicl contact existed much after the breakup of Gondwanaland. The great Indian rhino ( R. unicornis ) is the largest of all extant species, reaching 4.3 m in length and 2 m in height at the shoulder, while the Sumatran rhino is the smallest ( height 2.5 m or 8 foot and 2 m high ).
-- [ EB 10 `rhino' 23 ]

Buffalo -
Buffalos are again common to Africa and the Indies, while the related bison/wisent occurs in North America and Europe. The black Indian buffalo ( Bubalus bubalus ) reaches 1.5 m of more at the shoulder, as does the black Cape or African buffalo ( Syncerus caffer ). A red-brown subspecies of the Cape buffalo in the dense forests of equatorial western Africa is, like humans and animals of West Africa in general, much smaller. The anoa, a small dark brown buffalo of the dense Celebes rainforests and the tamaraw of the Philippines are also smaller species.
-- [ EB 2 `buffalo' 607 ]

Elephant -
The elephant once again is restricted to the Indies and Africa. 3 species exist: the Indian elephant, the large African elephant and the dwarfish Pygmy elephant of the rainforests of West Africa.
-- [ EB 4 `elephant' 441-2 ]

Felidae (Felines) -
The lion was once found in Africa, Europe and Asia. Now it is found only in sub-Saharan Africa and in India (eg. the Gir National Forest, Gujarat) [ EB 7 `lion' 382-3 ]. The leopard is found from Africa trough Anatolia, Central Asia, India, China and Manchuria. Varieties include the Barbary, South Arabian, ANantolian, Amur, SInai leopards [ EB `leo.' 281 ]

6.3 Botanical
Baobab Tree -
The baobab trees ( Adansonia digitata ), belonging to the bombax family (Bombacaceae) are native to Africa. However, a closely related and very similar tree, also known as baobab ( Adansonia gregoria ), occurs in Australia ! [ EB 1 `baobab' 877 ]

Banyan Tree -
The banyan tree ( Ficus benghalensis ) with its characteristic prop roots that resemble trunks is native to India. However, a similar variety, the wonderboom ( Ficus pretoia ) of Africa is very similar [ EB 28 `trees' 881 ] !

Capparaceae Trees -
Trees of the order Capparaceae, family moringaceae occur from Africa to India [ EB 13`angio.'638 ] and are another indication of the unity of Indian and African botanical life.

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Appendix I - The Sudran Races
The Sudra, or Indo-African, Race consists of the following sub-races:

Dravidian - Dravidian-speaking Sudras:
Settled Dravidians - Tamils, Mallas/Malabaris, and Karnadas
Adivasi Dravidas in North India (Gonds, Bhils, Brahui etc.) and South India (Tulus, Kurumba etc.)
Kolarians - Austric-Speaking Blacks or Indo-Australoid Sudras.
Dalits - Hindicized Aboriginal Blacks and imported Africans (Habshis), SC in North India

Appendix II - Origin of the Term Sudra
The term Shudra first appears in Sanskrit texts around 1500 BC denoting one of the black aboriginal tribes that the Aryans conquered. It was subsequently expanded to all blacks subjugated, and the term Dasa or Dasyu , or slave, was used to denote the servitude to which most Sudras were subjected. Sanskrit texts refer to the Shudra as the black varna or colour. Thus Shudra is equivalent as a racial term to the Latin Negra . Initially it only referred to subjugated aboriginals and not the aboriginals themselves who were referred to as avarna and later Adiavasi. Thus the terms Adivasi and Sudra were exclusive. Later under Muslim rule Arabic: sudd-> black and hence Sudra 9not Shudra) became the generic term for Indian blacks.

In its modern sense Sudra denoted any black man in India and hence includes the following sub-races:

Dravidians - Speakers of Dravidian languages. This includes
South Indian Dravidians or Settled Dravidians
Tamils
Mallas/Malabaris : Malayalis, Mallas
Karanad
Adivasi or Aboriginal Dravidians (eg. Tulu, Kurumba)
Kolarians - Kolarian speakers, incl. Mundas, Oraons, Santal, Ho
Dalits - Hindicized Sudras. This includes
Habshis or Hindicized Abyssinians
Hindicized Kols, eg. Bhuiyas

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The term Shudra is first recorded from Sanskrit texts as referring to one of the black aboriginal tribes that the Aryans encountered. It is the name of a black tribe that was adopted into Sanskrit and was subsequently used to denote those blacks who had entered the caste system as the lowest `varna' or color. They were the black varna. Initially, a distinction was drawn between Sudra and Adivasi (aboriginal blacks outside the caste system). However, in Prakrits the distinction was blurred, and Shudra was used for any aboriginal. During the Islamic Califate of Hindustan, Arabic became a sacred language, and in Arabic `sudd' means black ( hence the `bilad as-Sudan' or the Sudan of Africa ), and hence Sudra was used for any black, even the blacks imported from Africa. Terms of Abuse incl. Kalu kalia Kaluta kaffir English Hindustani Negro (Latin "negri") Sudra (Sans. "Shudra", Arab. "Sudd",black Black Kala
Appendix III - Nasal Index
The classification in general use is - leptorrhine (fine nose) if the nasal index is 85. The Indo-Aryan is comparable to the European, fopr the French of Paris have a nasal index of 69.4 as measurd by Topinard [ Ris 28-9 ]. According to Sir H.H.Risley, the nose of Sudras is very similar to that of the lowest Negro types. The nasal index frequently reaches more than 100. The Paniyans of Malabar have an average nasal index of 95, while certain individual Kadias of Tamil Nad measured 115. [ Ris App.III p.369].

Race Nasal Index Nasal Type

Indo-Aryan (Arya)

Brahman (Bengal) 70.3 sub-leptorrhine

Brahman (Bihar) 73.2 sub-leptorrhine

Brahman (Bhojpur) 74.6 sub-leptorrhine

Rajput 71.6 sub-leptorrhine

Kayasth (Bengal) 70.3 sub-leptorrhine

Jat 68.8 leptorrhine

Vaisya (Bania) 79.6 sub-leptorrhine

Gujjar 66.9 leptorrhine

Sikhs 68.8 leptorrhine [ Ris 28-9 ]

Sudroid

Paniyans (Malabar) 95.1 platyrrhine

Santal 88.8 platyrrhine

Munda 89.9 platyrrhine

Kol 82.2 sub-platyrrhine

Kadia 89.8 platyrrhine

Vellala 73.1 sub-platyrrhine

Tamil Brahman 76.7 sub-platyrrhine

Asur (Lohardaga) 95.9 platyrrhine

Bhil 84.1 sub-platyrrhine

Pariah 80.0 sub-platyrrhine

Irula 80.9 sub-platyrrhine

Kadia 89.8 platyrrhine

Musahar 88.7 platyrrhine

Chamar 86.0 platyrrhine

Dom 83.0 sub-platyrrhine

-- [ Ris App. III p.395 ff ]

Certain more recent analysts wish to refute Risley's claims [ Ghurye ] [ Bose ] but their results lack the depth and quality of RIsley's.
Appendix IV - Linguistic Relationships
The most evident linguistic connections between African and Dravidian languages is in place-names:

Africa India

------ ------

Botswana, Bophutatswana (reg) Gondwana (region)

Ubangi (river) Bhangi (caste)

Gonder (town, reg.) Gond (tribe)

Gongola Gond

Gonga (people,Ghana) Gond

Galla (tribe) Goala (caste), Gaya (town)

Kongo (river, reg., tribe) Kongu Nadu (reg.), Kond or Khond (tribe)

Imbangala (tribe) Bangala or Bengal (tribe, reg.)

Tsonga (tribe) Tunga (Kalinga abor. rulg. family)

Tonga (tribe) Tunga

Pongo Pandya (Tamil dyn.), Ponda

Kadamba Kurumba (tribe, dyn.)

Katanga (distt., Congo) Kurumba

Karanga (eth.Zimbab.) Kurumba

Kamba (n.e. Bantu) Kadamba (or Kurumba)

Sotho, Basuto (tr., S.Afr.) Sudra (caste)

Aja (tr., Nigeria) Anga

Kinga (tr.) Kalinga (natn)

Ila (tr.) Irula

Ila Bhilla

Toga Toda

Ganda (tr.) Ganda (anus, Sans.)

Mamba Malla, Malaya, Malabar

Nuer Nayar (caste)

Pongo Pengu (tr.,Orissa)

Mende (w.afr.people) Manda (Drav.people)

Zulu (tr., S.Af.) Tulu

Uganda Konda (Dr.tr.), Gonda

Iramba (rift Bantu) Irula

Turu (rift Bantu) Tulu

Masai (e. Nilotes) Malay or Malabar, Mallas

Kinga (Nyasa Bantu, Tanz.) Kalinga (natn.,race)

Manyika Mleccha (sans. for barbarian)

The `Congo' river and the `Kongo' tribes are cognate to the Kongu Nadu comprising the Salem tract in Tamil Nadu prior to its conquest by the Cholas [ EB 10 salem 350 ]. The suffix `-wana' is common to Bantu and Dravidian languages, thus Botswana and Bophuthatswana in southern Africa [ EB 2 botswana 412 ] [ EB 2 boph. 376 ] and Gondwana in central India [ EB 5:358 ]. The Mbangala or Imbangala warrior tribe of central Angola [ EB 6: imb. 266 ] are cognate to the Bangala tribe and the region named after them in eastern India, which later became Bengal. The Ubangi river [ EB ubangi 12:98 ] is the largest right-bank tributary of the Congo river and flows past Bangui town (the capital of the Central African Republic). A black tribe (and later low caste) by the name of Bhangi exists in northern India. The Bangweulu is a large lake and swamp region in northeastern Zambia. In Bantu the term denotes `Large Water' [ EB 1 bangw. 868 ] The Galla are the largest ethnic group in Ethipia, forming 40 % of the population [ EB 5 galla 87 ]. They are cattle-herders, as are the black-skinned low-caste known as Goala (cow-herders) in central India. The Mbundu are the second-largest ethnic group of Angola [ EB 7 mbundu 986 ] while the Munda are in Eastern India. The Ndongo tribe of the Mbundu [ EB 7 mbundu 986 ] are perhaps cognate to the Dombas or Doms of India. The Godabas of Somalia may have given their name to the Godavari River in the Deccan. Congates of `gond' and `gong' are widepread in Africa and Dravidia. Gonder or Gondar is the ancient capital of Ethiopia 1652-1855 as well as the surrounding region. The Gongola river is the primary tributary of the Benue River, while the Gongola basin is in northeastern Nigeria [ EB 5 gongola 359 ]. The Guang or Gonja in northern Ghana, who are descendant of Mandingos, speak the Gur and Goja languages and founded the Gonja kingdom [ EB 5 guang 532 ] The Gond are a large group of Draviidan tribes in Central India.

The Congolese linguist Th. Obenga proposed the term `Indo-African' languages in analogy with `Indo-European' [ Obenga ]. Prof. L. Homburger established close linguistic connections between Dravidian and Senegalese languages especially Fulani, as well as Kannada - Bantu and Telugu - Mande relationships [ Hom ]. Prof. Tuttle established connections between Nubian and Dravidian languages [ Tuttle ]. Prof. Lahoverty established conections between African and Dravidian languages [ Lah ]. Senegalese and Dravidian languages are closely related grammatically, structurally and lexically [ N'D ] [ Ups ]. The Upper Nile basin is considered by some scholars to be the original home of the Dravidians on linguistic grounds [ Win.gen 1118 ]

Clear relationships have been established between Dravidian and Australoid languages [ Holmer ] [ Bleek ] [ 3 Oc. 189 ].

Apendix V - Lemuria
Dravidian legends mention an ancient landmass which disappeared into the Ocean. The Tamils say that it was highly populated and included large cities, now buried beneath the sea. Tamil historians have discussed this land mass in detail throughout history; eg. Ariyarkkunallar in the 12th century. Linguistic evidence indicates that the Dravidians are related to the C-group Nubians of the Western Sahara who built the Kerma empire. Since Egypt was often at war with Kerma, the connection across Lemuria seems more plausible. [Winters:Agri]

The English zoologost Philip Sclater propsed the theory of the continent of Lemuria in the mid-1800s [ 3 Oc. 127 ]

Appendix V - Miscellaneous Notes
The Asurs of Lohardaga [ Ris p.399 ] Dravidian
`In fact the word `Kol' is a loose term used by the Hindus of the plains as a word of derision. De Meulder describes it as an Indian equivalent of the word `nigger' in the US ... [for scientific purposes Kol includes teh Larka Kols or Hos of Man and Dhalbhhum, the Munda Kols of Chotanagpur and the Bhumij ... The Hos are physically [supereior] to the other cognate branches of the Kolarian tribes... p.9 `The constatnt early use of teh bow expanded the chest and set the muscles and their innate passion for the chase over the steep and rugged hills brought their lower limbs nto a state of fitness, which the best phulwan (wrestler) of the plains of India might envy. Male height average 5'5" or 5'6" height women 5'2" .. copper tint complexion common women physically hetter ... developed Aryan influence ... more than 50 % of the population in Chota Nagpur division.'
-- [C.P.Singh p.8]
References

[ Arav.ph ] = K.P.Aravanan, `Physical and cultural similarities between Dravidian and African' , J. of Tamil Studies 10 (1976) 23-27

[ Arav.bk ] = K.P.Aravanan, `Dravidians and Africans', Madras 1979.

[ Arav.neg ] = K.P. Aravanan, `Notable negroid elements in Dravidian India', Journal of Tamil Studies 17 (1980) pp.20-45.

[ Ann. ] = `The Annals of Rural Bengal', W.W.Hunter, Broomhill House 1868, reprinted in `Landmarsk in Indian Anthropology', vol. 7, Cosmo Publishing, N.Delhi 1987

[ Bam ] = M. Bamshad et al, "mtDNA Variation in Caste Populations" Human Biology v. 68 (1996) 1

[ Bleek ] = `Handbook of African, Australian & Polynesian Languages', William H.J.Bleek, 3 vols. (1858-63)

[ Bose ] = `The Gazetteer of India', vol.1, Govt. of India, 1973, N.K.Bose, A.Mitra & H.Mukherjee. opposes Risley's idea of nasal index variation by caste.

[ Ghurye ] = `Caste, Class and Occupation in India', Bombay 1961 opposes the notion of caste variation of nasal index.

[ Holmer ] = `On the History & Structure of the Australian Language', N.M.Holmer, Lund, Sweden 1963

[ Lal ] = Lal, B , "The Only Asian expedition in threatened Nubia : Work by an Indian Mission at Afyeh and Tumas", The Illustrated London Times , 20 April 1963.

[ N'D ] C.T. N'Diaye, `The relationship between Dravidian languages and Wolof', Annamalai University Ph.D. Thesis.1978.

[ Muir ] = `Original Sanskrit Texts', Muir

[ Obenga ] = `L'Afrique dans l'Antiquete', Th. Obenga, Paris

[ 3 Oc. ] = `Riddles of 3 Oceans', Alexander Kondratov

[ Ris ] = `The People of India' by Sir H.H.Risley 1915
2nd ed., ed. by Sir W. Crooke 1969

[ Singh ] = P. Singh, `Burial Practices in Ancient India', Varanasi 1984

[ Seng.neg ] = `Negritude and Dravidian Culture' , L.S.Senghor, J. of Tamil Studies 10 (1974) p.4

[ Seng.y ] = `Why create a Department of Indo-African Studies at Dahar', J. of Tamil Studies 5 (1974) 1-11

[ Tuttle ] = `Dravidian and Nubian', E.H.Tuttle, J. of the Amer. Oreintal Society 52 (1932) 133-144

[ Upa ] = `Dravidian and Negro-African', U.P.Upadhyaya, Intnl. J. of Dravidian Linguisitsics 5:1 (1976) 32-64

[ U+U 76 ] = P.Upadhyaya & S.P.Upadhyaya, `Affinites ethno-linguistiques entre Dravidiens et les Negro-Africain' , Bull. IFAN , no.1 (1976) pp.127-157

[ U+U 79 ] = P. Upadhyaya & S.P. Upadhyaya, `Les liens entre Kerala et l"Afrique tels qu'ils resosortent des survivances culturelles et linguistiques', Bulletin de L'IFAN , no.1 (1979) pp.100-132

[ Win.gen ] = `The Genetic Unity of Dravidian and African Language and Culture', Clyde A. Winters, 1st Intnl Symosm. on Asian Studies 5, 1105-1120

[ Win.agri ] = `African Influences on Indian Agriculture',
J of African Civlization, 3:1 (April 1981) p.100-110

[ Win.un ] = C.A. Winters, `The Unity of African and Indian Agriculture', Journal of African Civilization 3, no.1 (1981a) p.103

[ Win.prot ] = C.A.Winters, `The Proto-Culture of the Dravidians, Manding and Sumerians', Tamil Civilization 3, no.1 (March 1985) p.1-9

[ Win.pla ] = C.A.Winters, `Common African and Dravidian Place Name Elements', South Asian Anthropologist 9:1 (1988) 32-36

[ Win.dal ] = `The African Origin of Glorious Dalits', Dalit Voice 4:2 (16-30 Sept. 1985 ) 1-8

[ Win.lang ] = C.A.Winters, "The Dravidian and African Languages", International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics , 23 (2), (1994) pp.34-52.

[ Win.com ] = C.A.Winters, `Linguistic continuity and African and Dravidian languages', 25 (2), (1996) pp.24-35.

[ Win.elam ] = C.A.Winters, "The genetic Unity between the Dravidian ,Elamite, Manding and Sumerian Languages", Proc. Sixth ISAS ,1984, (Hong Kong:Asian Research Service,1985d) pages 1413-1425.

[ EB ] = `Encyclopedia Britannica'


http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Ithaca/1335/Anthro/sud_afr.html

[This message was edited by Afroman on December 30, 2003 at 11:03 PM.]
Original Post

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This is an outstanding post by brother Pianke Nubiyang!!

quote:
It seems that for years, the European elite, the Semitic slave raiders and Eurasian steppe invaders of India as well as the British elite have done all they can to divide the various branches of the Black race using tricks like blood groups. Perhaps they ought to know that Blacks whether in Australia or the original "Black Indians" of California and the South West US to Panama are of African origins and that Africa has the greatest variety and greatest variations of genetics.

Recently, the Magazine Scientific American showed that Africans for the most part are a very pure and distinct race. Only 5 percent of Africans had a gene chromosome found in 50 percent of whites and 50 percent of Asians. On the other hand, a gene chromosome found in 95 percent of Blacks was found in 75 percent of Caucasians and 60 percent of Asians.

That tells me clearly that both Asians and Caucasians have a predomination of African genes and that another type of gene not found in Africans (Alu ) is found in both Asians and Europeans, which means that chromosome/gene is a mutation or comes from a prehuman source such as the Neanderthal or some other such group (which may or may not be the case).

As far as the Black skinned, African featured races such as Sudroid, Dalits, Australian Aborigines, Melanesians, they are the original people in Asia and therefore, the Asians have the same blood group that Australian Aborigines and Oceanic Negroids have because these Blacks groups migrated from a part of Africa where that type of blood grouping was common.

Nubianem2@webtv.net
http://community.webtv.net/paulnubiaempire

"Recently, the Magazine Scientific American showed that Africans for the most part are a very pure and distinct race. Only 5 percent of Africans had a gene chromosome found in 50 percent of whites and 50 percent of Asians. On the other hand, a gene chromosome found in 95 percent of Blacks was found in 75 percent of Caucasians and 60 percent of Asians."

It doesn't work that way, and that's probably the reason he doesn't cite the article or list a quote.

For starters, there's no such thing as a pure race, and biologists, ethnologists, and geneticists can't even determine if race exists precisely because none of them is "pure". They don't even know, if there are races, how many are represented because everyone is related.

Secondly, the article is a flagrant misrepresentation of information by the author. If we assume that Scientific American did make reference to a gene (which is entirely possible) that exists at 5% of the black population and 50% of whites and another at 95% for blacks and 75 and 60% for others, it proves nothing about the purity of race for a very good reason. There are more than thirty thousand genes in human DNA. You friend cited two, both of which are extant in Africans, Europeans, and Asians, which is a far cry from making a case for racial purity.

But even if we found all 30,000 genes to be different for blacks and everyone else, do you know what that would mean? It would mean we weren't human. Not even mammals. Keep in mind that our DNA, (which is comprised of chromosomes which describe genes) is 98%+ identical to that of chimpanzees.

So your author doesn't know what he's talking about.


[This message was edited by djonmaila on January 01, 2004 at 03:47 PM.]
quote:
Originally posted by djonmaila:
It doesn't work that way, and that's probably the reason he doesn't cite the article or list a quote.

For starters, there's no such thing as a pure race, and biologists, ethnologists, and geneticists can't even determine if race exists precisely because none of them is "pure". They don't even know, if there are races, how many are represented because everyone is related.

Secondly, the article is a flagrant misrepresentation of information by the author. If we assume that Scientific American did make reference to a gene (which is entirely possible) that exists at 5% of the black population and 50% of whites and another at 95% for blacks and 75 and 60% for others, it proves nothing about the purity of race for a very good reason. There are more than _thirty thousand_ genes in human DNA. You friend cited two, both of which are extant in Africans, Europeans, and Asians, which is a far cry from making a case for racial purity.

But even if we found all 30,000 genes to be different for blacks and everyone else, do you know what that would mean? It would mean we weren't human. Not even mammals. Keep in mind that our DNA, (which is comprised of chromosomes which describe genes) is 98%+ identical to that of chimpanzees.

So your author doesn't know what he's talking about.


Hey Prof. djonmaila, didn't you know I am your no. 1 secret admirer who facied you like mad? I am having a headache keeping up with all this intellectual stuff you come up with. What are you trying to do frighten me off? Big Grin
**mumbling to myself** gee and I always thought I was the one with brains what is a brother supposed to with black women like djonmaila around? Give up I suppose
giveup

_____________________________
Is it just talk or are you for solutions? If you are GENUINELY interested in solving black problems? Then join us at http://www.theguidedog.com/BlackNation.html

[This message was edited by henry38 on January 02, 2004 at 03:16 AM.]
quote:
Originally posted by djonmaila:
For starters, there's no such thing as a pure race, and biologists, ethnologists, and geneticists can't even determine if race exists precisely because none of them is "pure". They don't even know, if there are races, how many are represented because everyone is related.

Well, the inventors of race consciencouness our conqueror, have designed race to be African Negroid, the Chinese Mongoloid and Scandinavian Nordic. They are distinct in their outward appearance, mentally and psychologically, that counts?

quote:
Originally posted by EgbertSouse:
PAUL NUBI IS A FANATICAL RACIST IDIOT... downT
You accuse my brother of being an idiot because he refuses to accept your blindness. Do you think only him has the monopoly of idiocy? I wish you could disagree with facts and your higher self. Be blessed.

AfroMan.
quote:
Originally posted by EgbertSouse:
PAUL NUBI IS A FANATICAL RACIST IDIOT... downT
Is this a case of a [White] POT calling a kettle BLACK?

EGG, what do you think you are but a RACIST?
(PS: Your skin color doesn't matter, regardless of whether I'm right or wrong about it.)

"GREAT RACE WAR"...
The words of a Fanatical Racist Idiot!
Sorry I haven't responded in a while. I've been up to my ears in life these days.

"Hey Prof. djonmaila, didn't you know I am your no. 1 secret admirer who facied you like mad? I am having a headache keeping up with all this intellectual stuff you come up with. What are you trying to do frighten me off?
**mumbling to myself** gee and I always thought I was the one with brains what is a brother supposed to with black women like djonmaila around? Give up I suppose "

You are too funny. Heart

"djonmaila critiqued the article for using statistics without a cited source or article and then proceeds to use the 98% chimpanzee gene stat without a cited source. hmm...."

Good point. I'll pull that some of that stuff up for you in detail when I have more time because to fully address my problem with the first two posts in this thread will require whipping out several books and studies to show you guys why I disagree. The 98% figure is common knowledge in the scientific community, but as there is no expectation that it should be known in the community at large, here are a few links:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?holding=npg&cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11992255&dopt=Abstract
http://www.hoise.com/vmw/04/articles/vmw/LV-VM-01-04-24.html
http://www.dnafiles.org/about/pgm8/
http://www.forensic-evidence.com/site/Biol_Evid/Ape_DNA.html
http://www.chimpanzoo.org/african_notecards/chapter_16.html

There are variations of the numbers anywhere from a .6% to a 2.4% differential for chimps and humans. The difference is in the sampling of genes used to do the comparison. Some consider subets of genes used coding for things like sight and hearing, some consider broad spectra of genes, some discount junk DNA, etc, but the fact remains that no study over any range of genes has ever shown that we are anything but close. 98% identical is the rough estimate currently accepted.
"Well, the inventors of race consciencouness our conqueror, have designed race to be African Negroid, the Chinese Mongoloid and Scandinavian Nordic. They are distinct in their outward appearance, mentally and psychologically, that counts? "

I have no idea what you mean by "mentally and psychologically" unless you think the color of a person's skin dictates intellect. But ignoring that, here's the thing. What you are doing is adopting a old, illogical, unscientific concept and trying to justify it with modern science that completely disproves it.

But if you really look at the old concept, you see that it was created by people with no understanding of anything approaching biology or genetics or even science. It is a concept developed by uneducated laypeople, the only purpose of which is to segregate people into castes that prevent them from competing with the people at the top, the caste makers. The concept of race as we have been taught is no more scientific or biologically accurate than that. It's just a very convenient way to make it impossible for anyone to change the status or wealth of those it benefits by labeling everybody else as different variations of "not-European" by some arbitrary yardstick like skin color and removing their liberties accordingly.

When Europeans were busy sailing the world and meeting people, they knew almost nothing about linguistics, anthropology, or genetics, so if they used the same terms to describe an African and an Australian, or an Indian and a native American, it isn't because those people are brethren; it's because the people who labeled them were ignorant. But what is truly ignorant is that we now have modern science to show us the mistakes of the past and yet we are still clinging to this pseudo-science as if it were the gospel. At least the Europeans of 400 years ago had an excuse. Genetics hadn't been invented yet. But it's here now, and it has proven beyond any doubt that native Australians, Indians, and Africans are not the same people.

The bottom line is that the concept of race is just sloppy. The evolution of "black" is a perfect example.

Here's something I posted on another site a while back that explains what I'm saying. The information in it comes from several sources, most recently, the book "Africans in America" by Charles Johnson and Patricia Smith:

quote:

Our concept, not just of race, but of the black race in particular is a relic of slavery that black folks insist on keeping. Here's how it goes.

When blacks first came to the colonies, we came as indentured servants, not as slaves, in exchange for land. There were almost no women among the Africans who came here initially, mostly young men hoping to establish themselves. So what happened, as can be expected, is that the African immigrants becan consorting with and marrying European women (who were also being imported as field laborers). The laws of indentured servitude stipulate that any child of a servant must also serve his parent's "master" to pay back all the food and shelter he cost the master while he was too little to earn his keep, so all the children of these servants were also made to serve. It also used to be the law that a Christian could enslave (temporarily) anyone who wouldn't convert to Christianity. But then two important things happened:

1. In 1641 they decided that a baptism into Christianity wasn't good enough to gain freedom. You had to be born to Christian-born parents.

2. Shortly afterward, a law passed that said that no child of a white woman could be indentured.

That was the beginning of race-based slavery, and the new definition of "black". Now no child of a white woman could be enslaved, but because Africans weren't born Christian ALL children of black women were slaves for life.

So to keep up the numbers of servants, they started enslaving black women by the thousands. Now any man could impregnate a black woman or biracial woman without losing any of the children to freedom. So then the term "black" (negro) was used to refer not only to black people, but also to white people with a drop of black blood and everything in between. "Black" began to be used like a garbage bin - anything that wasn't "good enough" to be white got thrown in.


Long quote, but what it means to me is that in a very real sense, the definition of black which includes mixed is less a race than a status and the only reason we consider it a race is because that's what the slave system required. Even though I use it just like every other American, on another level I know our definition of black has less to do with race than it does with oppression. We identify with each other not because we are all so African (because many of us aren't very African at all), but because we were oppressed together. We identify more with our common struggles than our common ancestry, and that's not a bad thing, but it's not the definition of a race either.

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