quote:

Mexican Ways, African Roots


Most of the city's Hispanic residents are natives of a region populated by descendants of black slaves



Bobby Vaughn, who has studied the Afro-Mexican people, observes life among Afro-Mexicans living in Plantation Park Apartments in Winston-Salem. (Journal Photo by Ted Richardson)

quote:
A single pioneer

Patterns of Mexican migration to specific cities in the United States often can be traced to a single pioneer. By most accounts, the story of how Afro-Mexicans arrived in Winston-Salem begins with Biterbo Calleja-Garcia. In 1978, Calleja-Garcia was working in Tejas Ranchos, Texas, when a coyote, a guide who helps illegal immigrants cross the border, told him that there was more money to be made in North Carolina.

"Who knows how he knew to bring me here, but he knew," Calleja-Garcia said. "He said, 'You're gonna make a lot of money there.'"

In fact, he began earning $3.35 an hour working 17 acres of tobacco with his two sisters off Union Cross Road. They lived in a trailer on the farm and worked from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m. May through November. They returned to Mexico during the off-season.

Calleja-Garcia spread the word to friends and relatives back home in Cuaji and to many who were already working in Santa Ana, Calif. In Winston-Salem, he told them, there is work.

For 10 years, Calleja-Garcia had the same boss in North Carolina. In 1988, he got his papers to work legally in the United States. He stopped annual returns to Mexico in 1989 and took a job in roofing. Soon, he switched to a construction job, pouring cement for a company in Kernersville, earning $4 an hour, then $6. He started renting a two-bedroom house in the Waughtown section of Winston-Salem with about 12 others who came from California.

"After that, many that I didn't know began to come," he said.

Most, like Calleja-Garcia, crossed the border illegally. Some are paid off the books; others get fake work documents or work under false names. Others come legally on a temporary work visa. And some, again like Calleja-Garcia, attain legal working status at some point after they get here.

In Winston-Salem, the immigrants moved into jobs in construction, into factories packaging T-shirts and toiletries, and assembling window frames and drainage pipes for swimming pools. They moved into bakeries and the kitchens of restaurants. They opened their own restaurants and shops, hiring family members and friends.

Calleja-Garcia stuck with construction. In 1992, he found a job pouring concrete for a company in Archdale. His starting pay was $9.50 an hour, and he wound up helping build megastores such as Home Depot, Lowe's and Wal-Mart along Hanes Mall Boulevard. By the time he was laid off in 2002, he was earning $18 an hour.

He found work with a construction company in Greenville, S.C., and returned to Winston-Salem on the weekends. The travel was worth it. In Cuaji, a day laborer might earn 120 pesos, or $10 a day, half of what he was earning per hour in North Carolina.


quote:
On a Saturday in March, a black baseball coach, Arthur Green, went door-to-door in the apartment complex, recruiting players for Little League tryouts later that day at a nearby park. He did not speak Spanish, and the Mexicans greeted him with suspicion as he explained why he was there. Suspicion is a constant for those here illegally when an American stranger knocks on the door. None of the Mexicans sent their children to the tryouts.

One night, Tequilla Wilson, a young black woman attending Winston-Salem State University, met some of her Mexican neighbors one night in a desperate effort to complete her Spanish homework. She wandered around the complex, searching for anyone who could help her out. Some Mexican neighbors kindly obliged.

For the most part, the blacks and Mexicans keep to themselves. The apartment complex, once named Columbia Terrace, was built about 1950 as the first low-income housing project in the city. For years, its residents were predominantly black, but in the 1990s Hispanics began to move in. The process has accelerated in the past four years, and today the complex's 169 units are about evenly split between blacks and Mexicans, mostly from the Costa Chica.

In this and other neighborhoods around the city, Mexicans and blacks live side by side, a condition that can create tension.


http://www.journalnow.com/servlet/Satellite?pagename=WS...news&s=1037645509099

Last edited {1}
Original Post
How the Mexican constitution treats foreign residents, workers and naturalized citizens

*snip*

Summary

In brief, the Mexican Constitution states that:


- Immigrants and foreign visitors are banned from public political discourse.

- Immigrants and foreigners are denied certain basic property rights.

- Immigrants are denied equal employment rights.

- Immigrants and naturalized citizens will never be treated as real Mexican citizens.

- Immigrants and naturalized citizens are not to be trusted in public service.

- Immigrants and naturalized citizens may never become members of the clergy.

- Private citizens may make citizens arrests of lawbreakers (i.e., illegal immigrants) and hand them to the authorities.

- Immigrants may be expelled from Mexico for any reason and without due process.

The Mexican constitution: Unfriendly to immigrants

The Mexican constitution expressly forbids non-citizens to participate in the country's political life. Non-citizens are forbidden to participate in demonstrations or express opinions in public about domestic politics.

Article 9 states, "only citizens of the Republic may do so to take part in the political affairs of the country." Article 33 is unambiguous: "Foreigners may not in any way participate in the political affairs of the country."

The Mexican constitution denies fundamental property rights to foreigners. If foreigners wish to have certain property rights, they must renounce the protection of their own governments or risk confiscation. Foreigners are forbidden to own land in Mexico within 100 kilometers of land borders or within 50 kilometers of the coast. Article 27 states,

"Only Mexicans by birth or naturalization and Mexican companies have the right to acquire ownership of lands, waters, and their appurtenances, or to obtain concessions for the exploitation of mines or of waters.

The State may grant the same right to foreigners, provided they agree before the Ministry of Foreign Relations to consider themselves as nationals in respect to such property, and bind themselves not to invoke the protection of their governments in matters relating thereunto; under penalty, in case of noncompliance with this agreement, of forfeiture of the property acquired to the Nation.

Under no circumstances may foreigners acquire direct ownership of lands or waters within a zone of one hundred kilometers along the frontiers and of fifty kilometers along the shores of the country." (Emphasis added)

The Mexican constitution denies equal employment rights to immigrants, even legal ones, in the public sector.

Article 32: "Mexicans shall have priority over foreigners under equality of circumstances for all classes of concessions and for all employment, positions, or commissions of the Government in which the status of citizenship is not indispensable. In time of peace no foreigner can serve in the Army nor in the police or public security forces."

The Mexican constitution guarantees that immigrants will never be treated as real Mexican citizens, even if they are legally naturalized.

Article 32 bans foreigners, immigrants, and even naturalized citizens of Mexico from serving as military officers, Mexican-flagged ship and airline crew, and chiefs of seaports and airports:

"In order to belong to the National Navy or the Air Force, and to discharge any office or commission, it is required to be a Mexican by birth. This same status is indispensable for captains, pilots, masters, engineers, mechanics, and in general, for all personnel of the crew of any vessel or airship protected by the Mexican merchant flag or insignia.

It is also necessary to be Mexican by birth to discharge the position of captain of the port and all services of practique and airport commandant, as well as all functions of customs agent in the Republic."

An immigrant who becomes a naturalized Mexican citizen can be stripped of his Mexican citizenship if he lives again in the country of his origin for more than five years, under Article 37. Mexican-born citizens risk no such loss.

Foreign-born, naturalized Mexican citizens may not become federal lawmakers (Article 55), cabinet secretaries (Article 91) or supreme court justices (Article 95).

The president of Mexico, like the president of the United States, constitutionally must be a citizen by birth, but Article 82 of the Mexican constitution mandates that the president's parents also be

Mexican-born citizens, thus according secondary status to Mexican-born citizens born of immigrants.

The Mexican constitution forbids immigrants and naturalized citizens to become members of the clergy. Article 130 says, "To practice the ministry of any denomination in the United Mexican States it is necessary to be a Mexican by birth."

The Mexican constitution singles out "undesirable aliens." Article 11 guarantees federal protection against "undesirable aliens resident in the country."

The Mexican constitution provides the right of private individuals to make citizen's arrests. Article 16 states, "in cases of flagrante delicto, any person may arrest the offender and his accomplices, turning them over without delay to the nearest authorities." Therefore, the Mexican constitution appears to grant Mexican citizens the right to arrest illegal aliens and hand them over to police for prosecution.

The Mexican constitution states that foreigners may be expelled for any reason and without due process. According to Article 33, "the Federal Executive shall have the exclusive power to compel any foreigner whose remaining he may deem inexpedient to abandon the national territory immediately and without the necessity of previous legal action."

Notional policy options

Mexico and the United States have much to learn from one another's laws and practices on immigration and naturalization. A study of the immigration and citizenship portions of the Mexican constitution leads to a search for new policy options to find a fair and equitable solution to the immigration problem in the United States.

Two contrary options would require reciprocity, while doing the utmost to harmonize U.S.-Mexican relations:

1. Mexico should amend its constitution to guarantee immigrants to Mexico the same rights it demands the United States give to immigrants from Mexico; or

2. The United States should impose the same restrictions on Mexican immigrants that Mexico imposes on American immigrants.

These options are only notional, of course. They are intended only to help push the immigration debate in a more sensible direction. They simply illustrate the hypocrisy of the Mexican government's current immigration demands on the United States - as well as the emptiness of most Democrat and Republican proposals for immigration reform.

Mexico certainly has every right to control who enters its borders, and to expel foreigners who break its laws. The Mexican constitution is designed to give the strongest protections possible to the country's national security. Mexico's internal immigration policy is Mexico's business.

However, since Mexican political leaders from the ruling party and the opposition have been demanding that the United States ignore, alter or abolish its own immigration laws, they have opened their own internal affairs to American scrutiny. The time has come to examine Mexico's own glass house.

------------------------------------
J. Michael Waller, Ph.D., is the Center for Security Policy's Vice President for Information Operations.

[1] The official text of the Constitution of Mexico appears on the Website of the Chamber of Deputies, or lower house of Congress, of the United Mexican States:

http://www.cddhcu.gob.mx/leyinfo/txt/1.txt.
Go ask MEXICO what do THEY have against illegal aliens, Immigrants and foreign vistors. After THAT mission is completed . . . come back & tell us what they said.

In the meantime, people, the mexican government is HYPOCRITICAL in their criticism of the US.

Case in point:


quote:
Summary

In brief, the Mexican Constitution states that:

- Immigrants and foreign visitors are banned from public political discourse.

- Immigrants and foreigners are denied certain basic property rights.

- Immigrants are denied equal employment rights.

- Immigrants and naturalized citizens will never be treated as real Mexican citizens.

- Immigrants and naturalized citizens are not to be trusted in public service.

- Immigrants and naturalized citizens may never become members of the clergy.

- Private citizens may make citizens arrests of lawbreakers (i.e., illegal immigrants) and hand them to the authorities.

- Immigrants may be expelled from Mexico for any reason and without due process.


The Mexican constitution: Unfriendly to immigrants

The Mexican constitution expressly forbids non-citizens to participate in the country's political life. Non-citizens are forbidden to participate in demonstrations or express opinions in public about domestic politics.

Article 9 states, "only citizens of the Republic may do so to take part in the political affairs of the country." Article 33 is unambiguous: "Foreigners may not in any way participate in the political affairs of the country."

The Mexican constitution denies fundamental property rights to foreigners. If foreigners wish to have certain property rights, they must renounce the protection of their own governments or risk confiscation. Foreigners are forbidden to own land in Mexico within 100 kilometers of land borders or within 50 kilometers of the coast. Article 27 states,

"Only Mexicans by birth or naturalization and Mexican companies have the right to acquire ownership of lands, waters, and their appurtenances, or to obtain concessions for the exploitation of mines or of waters.

The State may grant the same right to foreigners, provided they agree before the Ministry of Foreign Relations to consider themselves as nationals in respect to such property, and bind themselves not to invoke the protection of their governments in matters relating thereunto; under penalty, in case of noncompliance with this agreement, of forfeiture of the property acquired to the Nation.

Under no circumstances may foreigners acquire direct ownership of lands or waters within a zone of one hundred kilometers along the frontiers and of fifty kilometers along the shores of the country." (Emphasis added)

The Mexican constitution denies equal employment rights to immigrants, even legal ones, in the public sector.

Article 32: "Mexicans shall have priority over foreigners under equality of circumstances for all classes of concessions and for all employment, positions, or commissions of the Government in which the status of citizenship is not indispensable. In time of peace no foreigner can serve in the Army nor in the police or public security forces."

The Mexican constitution guarantees that immigrants will never be treated as real Mexican citizens, even if they are legally naturalized.

Article 32 bans foreigners, immigrants, and even naturalized citizens of Mexico from serving as military officers, Mexican-flagged ship and airline crew, and chiefs of seaports and airports:

"In order to belong to the National Navy or the Air Force, and to discharge any office or commission, it is required to be a Mexican by birth. This same status is indispensable for captains, pilots, masters, engineers, mechanics, and in general, for all personnel of the crew of any vessel or airship protected by the Mexican merchant flag or insignia.

It is also necessary to be Mexican by birth to discharge the position of captain of the port and all services of practique and airport commandant, as well as all functions of customs agent in the Republic."

An immigrant who becomes a naturalized Mexican citizen can be stripped of his Mexican citizenship if he lives again in the country of his origin for more than five years, under Article 37. Mexican-born citizens risk no such loss.

Foreign-born, naturalized Mexican citizens may not become federal lawmakers (Article 55), cabinet secretaries (Article 91) or supreme court justices (Article 95).

The president of Mexico, like the president of the United States, constitutionally must be a citizen by birth, but Article 82 of the Mexican constitution mandates that the president's parents also be

Mexican-born citizens, thus according secondary status to Mexican-born citizens born of immigrants.

The Mexican constitution forbids immigrants and naturalized citizens to become members of the clergy. Article 130 says, "To practice the ministry of any denomination in the United Mexican States it is necessary to be a Mexican by birth."

The Mexican constitution singles out "undesirable aliens." Article 11 guarantees federal protection against "undesirable aliens resident in the country."

The Mexican constitution provides the right of private individuals to make citizen's arrests. Article 16 states, "in cases of flagrante delicto, any person may arrest the offender and his accomplices, turning them over without delay to the nearest authorities." Therefore, the Mexican constitution appears to grant Mexican citizens the right to arrest illegal aliens and hand them over to police for prosecution.

The Mexican constitution states that foreigners may be expelled for any reason and without due process. According to Article 33, "the Federal Executive shall have the exclusive power to compel any foreigner whose remaining he may deem inexpedient to abandon the national territory immediately and without the necessity of previous legal action."

Notional policy options

Mexico and the United States have much to learn from one another's laws and practices on immigration and naturalization. A study of the immigration and citizenship portions of the Mexican constitution leads to a search for new policy options to find a fair and equitable solution to the immigration problem in the United States.

Two contrary options would require reciprocity, while doing the utmost to harmonize U.S.-Mexican relations:

1. Mexico should amend its constitution to guarantee immigrants to Mexico the same rights it demands the United States give to immigrants from Mexico; or

2. The United States should impose the same restrictions on Mexican immigrants that Mexico imposes on American immigrants.

These options are only notional, of course. They are intended only to help push the immigration debate in a more sensible direction. They simply illustrate the hypocrisy of the Mexican government's current immigration demands on the United States - as well as the emptiness of most Democrat and Republican proposals for immigration reform.

Mexico certainly has every right to control who enters its borders, and to expel foreigners who break its laws. The Mexican constitution is designed to give the strongest protections possible to the country's national security. Mexico's internal immigration policy is Mexico's business.

However, since Mexican political leaders from the ruling party and the opposition have been demanding that the United States ignore, alter or abolish its own immigration laws, they have opened their own internal affairs to American scrutiny. The time has come to examine Mexico's own glass house.

------------------------------------
J. Michael Waller, Ph.D., is the Center for Security Policy's Vice President for Information Operations.

[1] The official text of the Constitution of Mexico appears on the Website of the Chamber of Deputies, or lower house of Congress, of the United Mexican States
quote:
Originally posted by Fabulous:
Go ask MEXICO what do THEY have against illegal aliens, Immigrants and foreign vistors. After THAT mission is completed . . . come back & tell us what they said.


Why?

What does that have to do with your attitude towards Black folks from outside this country?

And besides, are you under the illusion that your country is perfect? Who are you to throw stones at Black folks in other countries?
I don't know about YOU ... but THIS is what I'm talking about:

quote:

Summary

In brief, the Mexican Constitution states that:

- Immigrants and foreign visitors are banned from public political discourse.

- Immigrants and foreigners are denied certain basic property rights.

- Immigrants are denied equal employment rights.

- Immigrants and naturalized citizens will never be treated as real Mexican citizens.

- Immigrants and naturalized citizens are not to be trusted in public service.

- Immigrants and naturalized citizens may never become members of the clergy.

- Private citizens may make citizens arrests of lawbreakers (i.e., illegal immigrants) and hand them to the authorities.

- Immigrants may be expelled from Mexico for any reason and without due process.


The Mexican constitution: Unfriendly to immigrants

The Mexican constitution expressly forbids non-citizens to participate in the country's political life. Non-citizens are forbidden to participate in demonstrations or express opinions in public about domestic politics.

Article 9 states, "only citizens of the Republic may do so to take part in the political affairs of the country." Article 33 is unambiguous: "Foreigners may not in any way participate in the political affairs of the country."

The Mexican constitution denies fundamental property rights to foreigners. If foreigners wish to have certain property rights, they must renounce the protection of their own governments or risk confiscation. Foreigners are forbidden to own land in Mexico within 100 kilometers of land borders or within 50 kilometers of the coast. Article 27 states,

"Only Mexicans by birth or naturalization and Mexican companies have the right to acquire ownership of lands, waters, and their appurtenances, or to obtain concessions for the exploitation of mines or of waters.

The State may grant the same right to foreigners, provided they agree before the Ministry of Foreign Relations to consider themselves as nationals in respect to such property, and bind themselves not to invoke the protection of their governments in matters relating thereunto; under penalty, in case of noncompliance with this agreement, of forfeiture of the property acquired to the Nation.

Under no circumstances may foreigners acquire direct ownership of lands or waters within a zone of one hundred kilometers along the frontiers and of fifty kilometers along the shores of the country." (Emphasis added)

The Mexican constitution denies equal employment rights to immigrants, even legal ones, in the public sector.

Article 32: "Mexicans shall have priority over foreigners under equality of circumstances for all classes of concessions and for all employment, positions, or commissions of the Government in which the status of citizenship is not indispensable. In time of peace no foreigner can serve in the Army nor in the police or public security forces."

The Mexican constitution guarantees that immigrants will never be treated as real Mexican citizens, even if they are legally naturalized.

Article 32 bans foreigners, immigrants, and even naturalized citizens of Mexico from serving as military officers, Mexican-flagged ship and airline crew, and chiefs of seaports and airports:

"In order to belong to the National Navy or the Air Force, and to discharge any office or commission, it is required to be a Mexican by birth. This same status is indispensable for captains, pilots, masters, engineers, mechanics, and in general, for all personnel of the crew of any vessel or airship protected by the Mexican merchant flag or insignia.

It is also necessary to be Mexican by birth to discharge the position of captain of the port and all services of practique and airport commandant, as well as all functions of customs agent in the Republic."

An immigrant who becomes a naturalized Mexican citizen can be stripped of his Mexican citizenship if he lives again in the country of his origin for more than five years, under Article 37. Mexican-born citizens risk no such loss.

Foreign-born, naturalized Mexican citizens may not become federal lawmakers (Article 55), cabinet secretaries (Article 91) or supreme court justices (Article 95).

The president of Mexico, like the president of the United States, constitutionally must be a citizen by birth, but Article 82 of the Mexican constitution mandates that the president's parents also be

Mexican-born citizens, thus according secondary status to Mexican-born citizens born of immigrants.

The Mexican constitution forbids immigrants and naturalized citizens to become members of the clergy. Article 130 says, "To practice the ministry of any denomination in the United Mexican States it is necessary to be a Mexican by birth."

The Mexican constitution singles out "undesirable aliens." Article 11 guarantees federal protection against "undesirable aliens resident in the country."

The Mexican constitution provides the right of private individuals to make citizen's arrests. Article 16 states, "in cases of flagrante delicto, any person may arrest the offender and his accomplices, turning them over without delay to the nearest authorities." Therefore, the Mexican constitution appears to grant Mexican citizens the right to arrest illegal aliens and hand them over to police for prosecution.

The Mexican constitution states that foreigners may be expelled for any reason and without due process. According to Article 33, "the Federal Executive shall have the exclusive power to compel any foreigner whose remaining he may deem inexpedient to abandon the national territory immediately and without the necessity of previous legal action."

Notional policy options

Mexico and the United States have much to learn from one another's laws and practices on immigration and naturalization. A study of the immigration and citizenship portions of the Mexican constitution leads to a search for new policy options to find a fair and equitable solution to the immigration problem in the United States.

Two contrary options would require reciprocity, while doing the utmost to harmonize U.S.-Mexican relations:

1. Mexico should amend its constitution to guarantee immigrants to Mexico the same rights it demands the United States give to immigrants from Mexico; or

2. The United States should impose the same restrictions on Mexican immigrants that Mexico imposes on American immigrants.

These options are only notional, of course. They are intended only to help push the immigration debate in a more sensible direction. They simply illustrate the hypocrisy of the Mexican government's current immigration demands on the United States - as well as the emptiness of most Democrat and Republican proposals for immigration reform.

Mexico certainly has every right to control who enters its borders, and to expel foreigners who break its laws. The Mexican constitution is designed to give the strongest protections possible to the country's national security. Mexico's internal immigration policy is Mexico's business.

However, since Mexican political leaders from the ruling party and the opposition have been demanding that the United States ignore, alter or abolish its own immigration laws, they have opened their own internal affairs to American scrutiny. The time has come to examine Mexico's own glass house.

------------------------------------
J. Michael Waller, Ph.D., is the Center for Security Policy's Vice President for Information Operations.

[1] The official text of the Constitution of Mexico appears on the Website of the Chamber of Deputies, or lower house of Congress, of the United Mexican States.


Fabulous: Don't try to put words in my mouth [which is your MO] just show the dear readers WHERE, in my post, do I state anything DIFFERENT than what I've just posted right here & right now????
quote:
Summary

In brief, the Mexican Constitution states that:

- Immigrants and foreign visitors are banned from public political discourse.

- Immigrants and foreigners are denied certain basic property rights.

- Immigrants are denied equal employment rights.

- Immigrants and naturalized citizens will never be treated as real Mexican citizens.

- Immigrants and naturalized citizens are not to be trusted in public service.

- Immigrants and naturalized citizens may never become members of the clergy.

- Private citizens may make citizens arrests of lawbreakers (i.e., illegal immigrants) and hand them to the authorities.

- Immigrants may be expelled from Mexico for any reason and without due process.
quote:
The Mexican constitution: Unfriendly to immigrants

The Mexican constitution expressly forbids non-citizens to participate in the country's political life. Non-citizens are forbidden to participate in demonstrations or express opinions in public about domestic politics.

Article 9 states, "only citizens of the Republic may do so to take part in the political affairs of the country." Article 33 is unambiguous: "Foreigners may not in any way participate in the political affairs of the country."

The Mexican constitution denies fundamental property rights to foreigners. If foreigners wish to have certain property rights, they must renounce the protection of their own governments or risk confiscation. Foreigners are forbidden to own land in Mexico within 100 kilometers of land borders or within 50 kilometers of the coast. Article 27 states,

"Only Mexicans by birth or naturalization and Mexican companies have the right to acquire ownership of lands, waters, and their appurtenances, or to obtain concessions for the exploitation of mines or of waters.

The State may grant the same right to foreigners, provided they agree before the Ministry of Foreign Relations to consider themselves as nationals in respect to such property, and bind themselves not to invoke the protection of their governments in matters relating thereunto; under penalty, in case of noncompliance with this agreement, of forfeiture of the property acquired to the Nation.

Under no circumstances may foreigners acquire direct ownership of lands or waters within a zone of one hundred kilometers along the frontiers and of fifty kilometers along the shores of the country." (Emphasis added)

The Mexican constitution denies equal employment rights to immigrants, even legal ones, in the public sector.

Article 32: "Mexicans shall have priority over foreigners under equality of circumstances for all classes of concessions and for all employment, positions, or commissions of the Government in which the status of citizenship is not indispensable. In time of peace no foreigner can serve in the Army nor in the police or public security forces."

The Mexican constitution guarantees that immigrants will never be treated as real Mexican citizens, even if they are legally naturalized.

Article 32 bans foreigners, immigrants, and even naturalized citizens of Mexico from serving as military officers, Mexican-flagged ship and airline crew, and chiefs of seaports and airports:

"In order to belong to the National Navy or the Air Force, and to discharge any office or commission, it is required to be a Mexican by birth. This same status is indispensable for captains, pilots, masters, engineers, mechanics, and in general, for all personnel of the crew of any vessel or airship protected by the Mexican merchant flag or insignia.

It is also necessary to be Mexican by birth to discharge the position of captain of the port and all services of practique and airport commandant, as well as all functions of customs agent in the Republic."

An immigrant who becomes a naturalized Mexican citizen can be stripped of his Mexican citizenship if he lives again in the country of his origin for more than five years, under Article 37. Mexican-born citizens risk no such loss.

Foreign-born, naturalized Mexican citizens may not become federal lawmakers (Article 55), cabinet secretaries (Article 91) or supreme court justices (Article 95).

The president of Mexico, like the president of the United States, constitutionally must be a citizen by birth, but Article 82 of the Mexican constitution mandates that the president's parents also be

Mexican-born citizens, thus according secondary status to Mexican-born citizens born of immigrants.

The Mexican constitution forbids immigrants and naturalized citizens to become members of the clergy. Article 130 says, "To practice the ministry of any denomination in the United Mexican States it is necessary to be a Mexican by birth."

The Mexican constitution singles out "undesirable aliens." Article 11 guarantees federal protection against "undesirable aliens resident in the country."

The Mexican constitution provides the right of private individuals to make citizen's arrests. Article 16 states, "in cases of flagrante delicto, any person may arrest the offender and his accomplices, turning them over without delay to the nearest authorities." Therefore, the Mexican constitution appears to grant Mexican citizens the right to arrest illegal aliens and hand them over to police for prosecution.

The Mexican constitution states that foreigners may be expelled for any reason and without due process. According to Article 33, "the Federal Executive shall have the exclusive power to compel any foreigner whose remaining he may deem inexpedient to abandon the national territory immediately and without the necessity of previous legal action."

Notional policy options

Mexico and the United States have much to learn from one another's laws and practices on immigration and naturalization. A study of the immigration and citizenship portions of the Mexican constitution leads to a search for new policy options to find a fair and equitable solution to the immigration problem in the United States.

Two contrary options would require reciprocity, while doing the utmost to harmonize U.S.-Mexican relations:

1. Mexico should amend its constitution to guarantee immigrants to Mexico the same rights it demands the United States give to immigrants from Mexico; or

2. The United States should impose the same restrictions on Mexican immigrants that Mexico imposes on American immigrants.

These options are only notional, of course. They are intended only to help push the immigration debate in a more sensible direction. They simply illustrate the hypocrisy of the Mexican government's current immigration demands on the United States - as well as the emptiness of most Democrat and Republican proposals for immigration reform.

Mexico certainly has every right to control who enters its borders, and to expel foreigners who break its laws. The Mexican constitution is designed to give the strongest protections possible to the country's national security. Mexico's internal immigration policy is Mexico's business.

However, since Mexican political leaders from the ruling party and the opposition have been demanding that the United States ignore, alter or abolish its own immigration laws, they have opened their own internal affairs to American scrutiny. The time has come to examine Mexico's own glass house.

------------------------------------
J. Michael Waller, Ph.D., is the Center for Security Policy's Vice President for Information Operations.

[1] The official text of the Constitution of Mexico appears on the Website of the Chamber of Deputies, or lower house of Congress, of the United Mexican States.
Guess where this thread is going to end up...

Anyway, comparing Mexico and the U.S. is like comparing apples and oranges, regardless of how fcuked up their policies are. However, the U.S. is one of the most enlightened and wealthy (in several aspects) nations in the world, so it's a bit shameful and disingenuous to suggest something along the lines of - We do it, so what? They do it, too. What ever happend to leading by example?
Blah, blah, blah. . . sleep

You know what? EVERYBODY ... and I do mean EVERYBODY ... is entitled to their OWN opinion in reference to this issue, regardless, of how fucked up YOU [personally] think it is.

MY point is & has been since my FIRST POST in this thread - Mexico is hypocritical in their criticism of US policies on IMMIGRATION.

And shame on you if what I said is too difficult for you to comprehend.

However, the minute I start allowing some faceless, cyber bugger muncher to determine or define my POINT OF VIEW on ANY damn issue, is the minute I will lay down and die.

YOU are no better than *I* am and just like YOU I have the right to my own opinion, whether you like it or not.

Now, if THAT's a problem for you, too damn bad.

Try this: ESAD
ricardomath=white supremacist=keeping those "Ns" in line, cause they be too damn ignorant to 'think' for they damn selves=white power=go ricardomath, you WMOFO, go. cabbage
The following was originally posted by ac9311 in another thread, unfortunately I don't know how to link to the thread, so I'll simply post the article itself.

Since the majority of illegal aliens who come here are mexicans/hispanics....why doesn't old ricardomath question their 'attitude' towards Black folks from outside THEIR country, huh? Why isn't he on THEIR message boards, calling THEIR 'women' names???

I'll tell you why, because that WB doesn't give a damn about black ppl, only as far as he can USE them to benefit his own personal agenda. You mark my words.

Anyway. . .

Case in point:

Mexico stands firm in stamp row
Mexico's President Vicente Fox has said that a set of commemorative postage stamps featuring a black Mexican cartoon character are not racist.





Anti-racism campaigners and White House officials had condemned the stamps, based on the Memin Pinguin cartoon, as the character has large eyes and lips.

Mr Fox said he did not understand the hostile reaction in the US, and urged Americans to read the original comics.

Many Mexicans appeared to back Mr Fox, queuing for hours to buy the stamps.

In an interview with the Associated Press news agency, Mr Fox said the Memin Pinguin character is "an image in a comic I have known since infancy".

"It is cherished here in Mexico," the president added.

He urged Americans to read the comics before rushing to judgement.

Mr Fox provoked another row in May, when he complained that Mexicans in the US were forced into taking jobs that "even blacks" don't want.

'Brothers'

In Mexico City, hundreds flocked to post offices to try and get their own copies of the stamps.

Mr Fox urged Americans to read the Memin Pinguin comics



Many took exception to comments by White House spokesman Scott McClellan that the stamps "have no place in today's world".

"We are not racists. We are not offending anyone. He is a very sweet character," shopper Teresa Montalvo said.

"People's colour is all the same to us, we are all brothers."

Businessman Cesar Alonso Alvarado accused the US of discriminating against Mexico, a country without a significant black community and little understanding of political correctness.

"They're the racists. They're worse than we are, but they just want to belittle us, like always," he said.

But there was criticism of the Mr Fox in Mexico's newspapers

"The capacity of Fox's government for provoking international scandals through predictable or avoidable details is incredible," La Jornada wrote.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4643245.stm

Fabulous: 'Brothers'? What bullshyt! [puke & gag] That damn racist ain't no 'brother'. Y'all can 'go wit the flow' if you want to, but I'll take a PASS!
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That WB [RM] thinks he's slick...."In mexico, they be black people too."

In other words, it's just ONE big ole happy family, right?

yeah, ok.

*shaking my damn head*

As the poster ac9311 stated when posting his/her links and I quote: Here is what Latin America thinks of us:

Understanding Pickaninnies and Improving the Race

We need to better understand the subtly complicated nature of race and racism in Latin America


Rather than just reacting to the Mexican government's recent attempt to honor Memin Pinguin, a popular comic strip character who also looks every bit the pickaninny caricature, with moral outrage we should see it for what it is: an opportunity.

The debate over the inherent racism of the stamps and what it says about the Mexican attitude on race is an opportunity to address two issues of race that are becoming increasingly important in the U.S. and around the world.

One is the empty idea of racial blindness, particularly in relation to racist images of the past, and how it impedes a true sense of racial understanding.

The second is the need to better understand the subtly complicated nature of race and racism in Latin America. Both are important as the ethnic face of the U.S. continues to change and local problems around the world become international ones.

Memin Pinguin is the 58 year-old creation of the late Yolanda Vargas Duche. The character, whose name translates roughly to "Billy the Little Devil," is something of a Dennis the Menace, a lovable mischief-maker character in name as well as attitude.

The series follows Memin's adventures with his three friends Ernestillo, Carlos and Ricardo (all "white" Mexicans), but the central relationship of the series is between the "negrito" and his mother, Ma' Linda. In 1947 Vargas Duche returned to Mexico after a period of working in Cuba. She was apparently so inspired by Havana's many black children that she patterned Memin after them.

Memin's speech and gestures are bombastic, he is LAZY when it comes to doing chores, and, as his name implies he is a troublemaker.

It was seemingly a genuine warmhearted fascination that influenced this decision to make a black protagonist. And yet the fact that nearly all the other characters in the series are rendered in a fairly realistic manner, while Memin is drawn in the highly stylized image of the old cartoon version of a little black pickaninny must raise a few eyebrows and questions.

Like the word itself, which comes from the Portuguese slaver term pequenho for "little one," the pickaninny cartoon image, that has populated popular western media since the 1890s, has international recognition. Ma' Linda is drawn in a less exaggerated style than her son, but is nonetheless a perfect echo of the black Mammy figure, perhaps more common worldwide than the pickaninny.

Neither character exhibits the worst of the dimwitted mannerisms associated with the black caricatures featured in the many racist American cartoons of the early 20th century. Nevertheless they are totally in line with the Latin American tradition of portraying racialized stereotypes. Memin's speech and gestures are bombastic, he is lazy when it comes to doing chores, and, as his name implies, he is a troublemaker. These are softened versions of the typical black racial stereotypes in Latin America.

Afro-Latinos are presented in popular culture as loud and uncultured, tremendously lazy and prone to crime or violence. This image, repeats in the popular media and conversation from Ecuador, to El Salvador, and the Dominican Republic in varying degrees.

The issue with these stereotypes, like all stereotypes, is not that they are baseless, or that in the case of Memin they are inherently malicious, but rather that absent alternative pictures that show a more complete image these representations start to form the popular conceptions of different groups.

From op-eds and blogs to government officials and the stamp buying public, the Mexican response is one of defiance and annoyance. They see the protest to the Memin stamp as actions by ignorant Americans who know nothing of Mexican culture, and by opportunistic black leaders who are trying to use this to get attention.

This opinion holds that the cartoon isn't intended to be offensive to anyone, and therefore it isn't. If anything, the publishers claim, Memin has improved its readers' racial sensitivity, that the character's "exaggerated traits that prove a noble heart is what is important within a person."

As readers follow Memin's adventures they relate to his love for his mother and his loyalty to friends. By the end they feel so much affection for Memin that this affection somehow translates to all people.

This naïve opinion is not news. It is the same argument used to defend the appreciation of Buckwheat, Amos and Hattie McDaniel's various Mammy roles, along with other black characters of the Jim Crow era.

For whatever humor and humanity these characters brought to audiences they come from an assumption of inferiority and disdain that cannot be ignored. Memin Pinguin is not Buckwheat, but he draws on the same inspiration that created an international visual vocabulary for what it is to be black. *snip*

http://www.blackcommentator.com/147/147_guest_peters_pickaninnies.html
quote:
Originally posted by Fabulous:
Blah, blah, blah. . . sleep

You know what? EVERYBODY ... and I do mean EVERYBODY ... is entitled to their OWN opinion in reference to this issue, regardless, of how fucked up YOU [personally] think it is.

MY point is & has been since my FIRST POST in this thread - Mexico is hypocritical in their criticism of US policies on IMMIGRATION.

And shame on you if what I said is too difficult for you to comprehend.

However, the minute I start allowing some faceless, cyber bugger muncher to determine or define my POINT OF VIEW on ANY damn issue, is the minute I will lay down and die.

YOU are no better than *I* am and just like YOU I have the right to my own opinion, whether you like it or not.

Now, if THAT's a problem for you, too damn bad.

Try this: ESAD


FABbot,

You've made your point of view very clear...

quote:
Originally posted by Fabulous:
I'd stand on the sidelines with the KLAN, if it meant control of our borders.

Hey now, any KKK members out there??? hit me up on this illegal immigration issue. I may not stand with y'all [heaven forbid] ... but I'll be the little black lady standing on the side ... waaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaay~~~~~~>>>>>>>>>>>>> over there~~~~~~~~~>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> X

This may be the FIRST & LAST time I'd agree with the Klan -- But I'm wit y'all on this illegal immigration issue.

word.


Which goes a long way towards explaining why you are attempting to hijack this thread with your spam and off-topic posts.
quote:
Originally posted by Fabulous:
ricardomath=white supremacist=keeping those "Ns" in line, cause they be too damn ignorant to 'think' for they damn selves=white power=go ricardomath, you WMOFO, go. cabbage


quote:
Originally posted by Fabulous:
I'd stand on the sidelines with the KLAN, if it meant control of our borders.

Hey now, any KKK members out there??? hit me up on this illegal immigration issue. I may not stand with y'all [heaven forbid] ... but I'll be the little black lady standing on the side ... waaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaay~~~~~~>>>>>>>>>>>>> over there~~~~~~~~~>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> X

This may be the FIRST & LAST time I'd agree with the Klan -- But I'm wit y'all on this illegal immigration issue.

word.
quote:


Which goes a long way towards explaining why you are attempting to hijack this thread with your spam and off-topic posts.


Whatever, WB.

Your middle & last names are Hijack thread, especially, when the commentary goes against your views on immigration. Hey, don't you have an illegal alien board or hispanic message board to go to?

I bet you don't DISPARAGE their women, in fact, I'm sure Mexican men wouldn't allow you to come on their message board disrespecting THEIR people. . .

. . .You do it HERE because black people are more tolerant of 'snakes in the grass' like YOU ... then they should be.

You have plenty of people supporting your KLAN AZZZZ in this forum, so what ya complaining about, AH?

Ain't THAT just like a WB - always complainin' cause he wants the whole enchilada ALL to himself. Uh huh, I 'dig' where you're coming from. smh

But personally, I prefer to choose my OWN poison & version of the klan.
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quote:
Originally posted by Fabulous:
ricardomath=white supremacist=keeping those "Ns" in line, cause they be too damn ignorant to 'think' for they damn selves=white power=go ricardomath, you WMOFO, go.



quote:
Originally posted by Fabulous:
I'd stand on the sidelines with the KLAN, if it meant control of our borders.

Hey now, any KKK members out there??? hit me up on this illegal immigration issue. I may not stand with y'all [heaven forbid] ... but I'll be the little black lady standing on the side ... waaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaay~~~~~~>>>>>>>>>>>>> over there~~~~~~~~~>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> X

This may be the FIRST & LAST time I'd agree with the Klan -- But I'm wit y'all on this illegal immigration issue.

word.


Like I said WB.

I'll choose my OWN poison & version of the klan, if ya don't mind, AND EVEN IF YOU DO.

Just because you're the resident WB doesn't mean I have to fall in line with yo white azzzzzzzz.

I'm picky about the white azzzzzezzzzzz I'll tolerate.

Now what, WB?
As far as I'm concerned, the following commentary IS on TOPIC. . .

. . .because the stamp 'issue' promotes SUSPICION and FEAR, as well as a stereotype ... and it also, imo, creates DIVISION. . .

Mexico is NOT colorblind, as the WB would have us believe. And their constitution demonstrates just how much tolerance they have for IMMIGRANTS, meaning, they have NONE! Meanwhile they expect a tolerance [THEY lack themselves] from another country.

quote:
Mexico stands firm in stamp row
Mexico's President Vicente Fox has said that a set of commemorative postage stamps featuring a black Mexican cartoon character are not racist.




Anti-racism campaigners and White House officials had condemned the stamps, based on the Memin Pinguin cartoon, as the character has large eyes and lips.

Mr Fox said he did not understand the hostile reaction in the US, and urged Americans to read the original comics.

Many Mexicans appeared to back Mr Fox, queuing for hours to buy the stamps.

In an interview with the Associated Press news agency, Mr Fox said the Memin Pinguin character is "an image in a comic I have known since infancy".

"It is cherished here in Mexico," the president added.

He urged Americans to read the comics before rushing to judgement.

Mr Fox provoked another row in May, when he complained that Mexicans in the US were forced into taking jobs that "even blacks" don't want.

'Brothers'

In Mexico City, hundreds flocked to post offices to try and get their own copies of the stamps.

Mr Fox urged Americans to read the Memin Pinguin comics




Many took exception to comments by White House spokesman Scott McClellan that the stamps "have no place in today's world".

"We are not racists. We are not offending anyone. He is a very sweet character," shopper Teresa Montalvo said.

"People's colour is all the same to us, we are all brothers."

Businessman Cesar Alonso Alvarado accused the US of discriminating against Mexico, a country without a significant black community and little understanding of political correctness.

"They're the racists. They're worse than we are, but they just want to belittle us, like always," he said.

But there was criticism of the Mr Fox in Mexico's newspapers

"The capacity of Fox's government for provoking international scandals through predictable or avoidable details is incredible," La Jornada wrote.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4643245.stm


btw WB, and you can quote me: I'll stand with satan himself against your trifling white azzzzzzzzzz.

For real.
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Fox is an idiot and like many others, he has succumbed to the yoke of white supremacy....i betcha this cat even has his choice words from the brown skinned of his own damn country....I have had to work with the mexicans who have a little more education and money and listen to them talk about poor uneducated immigrants as if they had a pfucking tail....especially the ones who tout some castillian heritage that is based on being mostly european....all that aside, what makes fox a true dumbazz....is how are you going to tell people what the pfuck THEY should find offensive.....that reeks of the same bs whites tried to feed the slaves based on twisting some biblical passages to justify the horrible things they were doing.....
quote:
Originally posted by Fabulous:

But personally, I prefer to choose my OWN poison & version of the klan.


quote:
Originally posted by Fabulous:

I'd stand on the sidelines with the KLAN, if it meant control of our borders.

Hey now, any KKK members out there??? hit me up on this illegal immigration issue. I may not stand with y'all [heaven forbid] ... but I'll be the little black lady standing on the side ... waaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaay~~~~~~>>>>>>>>>>>>> over there~~~~~~~~~>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> X

This may be the FIRST & LAST time I'd agree with the Klan -- But I'm wit y'all on this illegal immigration issue.

word.


quote:
Originally posted by Fabulous:
As far as I'm concerned, the following commentary IS on TOPIC. . .

. . .because the stamp 'issue' promotes SUSPICION and FEAR, as well as a stereotype ... and it also, imo, creates DIVISION. . .

Mexico is NOT colorblind, as the WB would have us believe. And their constitution demonstrates just how much tolerance they have for IMMIGRANTS, meaning, they have NONE! Meanwhile they expect a tolerance [THEY lack themselves] from another country.




There is something just a little disturbing, but at the same time somewhat amusing (in a twisted sort of Loftonesque kinda' way), about a supposedly Black woman coming to a Black bulletin board, expressing simpathy to the KKK, and posting (and spamming) to a thread specifically on the topic of Afromexicano immigrants to this country with an anti-immigrant tirade, even to the point of using racist images of those Black immigrants from their own home country against them.

Let's just hope that any Afromexicano immigrants who come to this board and read your words of hatred and attack can appreciate the irony and humor, and not take the xenophobia and racism that you express against them as being generally representative of the entire African American community.

And let's hope that your words, and the words of others who feel as you do, do not lead them to fear something as simple as allowing their children to try out for the Little League, when invited to do so by well-meaning people who, unlike yourself, attempt to reach out to them in kindness.

quote:
On a Saturday in March, a black baseball coach, Arthur Green, went door-to-door in the apartment complex, recruiting players for Little League tryouts later that day at a nearby park. He did not speak Spanish, and the Mexicans greeted him with suspicion as he explained why he was there. Suspicion is a constant for those here illegally when an American stranger knocks on the door. None of the Mexicans sent their children to the tryouts.
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A big thanks to Fab for pointing out Mexican hypocrisy. Their own constitution basically legalizes dicrimination against non-citizens in Mexico, yet they had the audacity to threaten to take the USA to a human rights court talk of peacefully building a barrier on our own national soil as a means of practicing control of our right to control who and what flows through our border. Amazing. It'd be funny if the very real effects weren't so sad (and deadly). Yes Fab, Mexico and much of Latin America is a hotbed of hypocrisy and corruption (and the USA isn't immune either, for the record). Pity so many of Mexico's citizens are here. I mean, just imagine all of that fuss and demand for entitlement with the "Si Se Puede" and "Day Without An Immigrant" stunts transposed into reforming their own countries. If they could be bothered to show that kind of unity and cohesiveness in their own lands.........
There isn't a single ethnicity to come from another country that doesn't also bring with them negative stereotypes about Black/African people. Then they get here and find that adopting the same attitudes regarding our people will help them to get in good standing with the white powers-that-be.

The Mexican stamps came to light several years ago so it is hardly a 'gotcha' moment to those who don't believe in scapegoating the Mexican immigrant population.

We can talk about the Jamaicans who come to the US and look down their collective nose at African Americans. Or the Nigerians, Somalian, Ethiopians, Guyanese, Bahamians, Haitians, etc. who do the same.
quote:
Originally posted by Empty Purnata:
quote:
Originally posted by Zé:
However, the U.S. is one of the most enlightened....nations in the world


What the hell do you mean by this? Confused


I meant with regard to change, social aide, innovation, technology, etc. This, however, does not mean that I do not see the many unenlightened things that still plague the U.S. Every country has its faults, but what I was trying to point out was that the U.S. should be doing much better - despite those who are quick to point out that it's better than Mexico, as if this is a valid standard of comparison.
quote:
Originally posted by UppityNegress:
A big thanks to Fab for pointing out Mexican hypocrisy. Their own constitution basically legalizes dicrimination against non-citizens in Mexico, yet they had the audacity to threaten to take the USA to a human rights court talk of peacefully building a barrier on our own national soil as a means of practicing control of our right to control who and what flows through our border. Amazing. It'd be funny if the very real effects weren't so sad (and deadly). Yes Fab, Mexico and much of Latin America is a hotbed of hypocrisy and corruption (and the USA isn't immune either, for the record). Pity so many of Mexico's citizens are here. I mean, just imagine all of that fuss and demand for entitlement with the "Si Se Puede" and "Day Without An Immigrant" stunts transposed into reforming their own countries. If they could be bothered to show that kind of unity and cohesiveness in their own lands.........


Don't they get shot by government troops for doing that in their own land, though? Confused
The way I see it: there's dark-skinned people and there's lighter than light people, with all the various colors of people in between. If the sun darkens you in any way, that's the melanin talkin' big time. If you turn redder than a lobster, no melanin. If you can't take the fact that you turn dark with sun, kill yourself please. There's something lurking in your woodpile that you're not going to be able to deal with. Case closed.
I see that the link to the article that I quoted from in the initial post of this thread is dead. Here is what appears to be the complete text of the original article that I found on another website:

Mexican Ways, African Roots



Most of the city’s Hispanic residents are natives of a region populated by descendants of black slaves

By Lisa Hoppenjans and Ted Richardson of the Winston-Salem Journal

Children fresh off school buses run through the door, clutching the dollar bills that their mothers gave them to pick up milk or bread. They use the change to buy Jolly Ranchers, Tootsie Rolls and bubble gum out of the buckets that line the counter.

Men, their clothes dirty from construction work, stroll in and pay 25 cents for single cigarettes to start their afternoons.

Women with babies on their hips navigate the narrow aisles, rounding up staples for that night’s dinner - chorizo or ham, tortillas or bread, black beans or baked beans.

Amid the bustle at Titi’s Convenience Store in Skyline Village apartment complex, the Mexicans and blacks brush by each other in the aisles, yet exchange few words.

Though Mexican and black children in the apartment complex play together - a love of riding Hot Wheels spans cultures - the adults live side by side in different worlds. They are separated by language, suspicion and stereotypes. But these neighbors have more in common than they realize.

Depending on the day, the radio may be playing mariachi music or hip-hop, a nod to store owner Marina Arrellanes’ son, Rey David, who works with her when he’s not in school. “My son likes that music,” she said. “His friends are all black.”

While a Mexican woman sifts through a bin of green peppers and tomatoes, Arrellanes rings up a sale for a black man buying Ruffles and a Mountain Dew. She doesn’t tell him that he is the same color as her grandfather.

Mexicans pride themselves on their mestizo culture. They are proud of the mixture of indigenous and European heritage that most Mexicans share. But there is another source of mestizo heritage that is less recognized - African slaves.

Their descendants, Afro-Mexicans, inhabit the Costa Chica, a narrow, coastal region stretching 200 miles along the Pacific Ocean in southern Mexico. Many Mexicans don’t even know they exist. Afro-Mexicans are estimated to make up less than 1 percent of Mexico’s population of 105 million, but they are a majority of the 30,000 Hispanics that officials have estimated to be living in Forsyth County.

Bobby Vaughn, an assistant professor of sociology at Notre Dame de Namur University in Belmont, Calif., has studied the Afro-Mexicans of the Costa Chica and done research in Winston-Salem. Vaughn estimates that about 80 percent of Winston-Salem’s Hispanic population is from the Costa Chica.

Vaughn learned of Afro-Mexicans when he spent two semesters in Mexico City studying Spanish and political science in the early 1990s.

He scraped up some money for a bus ride to the coast of the Mexican state of Guerrero during his spring break. He arrived in Caujinicuilapa, known as Cuaji, the largest town in the region, on a hot day.

“I saw black people, and I was dumbfounded,” he said. “I saw old men who looked like my grandfather.”

A single pioneer

Patterns of Mexican migration to specific cities in the United States often can be traced to a single pioneer. By most accounts, the story of how Afro-Mexicans arrived in Winston-Salem begins with Biterbo Calleja-Garcia. In 1978, Calleja-Garcia was working in Tejas Ranchos, Texas, when a coyote, a guide who helps illegal immigrants cross the border, told him that there was more money to be made in North Carolina.

“Who knows how he knew to bring me here, but he knew,” Calleja-Garcia said. “He said, ‘You’re gonna make a lot of money there.’”

In fact, he began earning $3.35 an hour working 17 acres of tobacco with his two sisters off Union Cross Road. They lived in a trailer on the farm and worked from 7 a.m. to 10 p.m. May through November. They returned to Mexico during the off-season.

Calleja-Garcia spread the word to friends and relatives back home in Cuaji and to many who were already working in Santa Ana, Calif. In Winston-Salem, he told them, there is work.

For 10 years, Calleja-Garcia had the same boss in North Carolina. In 1988, he got his papers to work legally in the United States. He stopped annual returns to Mexico in 1989 and took a job in roofing. Soon, he switched to a construction job, pouring cement for a company in Kernersville, earning $4 an hour, then $6. He started renting a two-bedroom house in the Waughtown section of Winston-Salem with about 12 others who came from California.

“After that, many that I didn’t know began to come,” he said.

Most, like Calleja-Garcia, crossed the border illegally. Some are paid off the books; others get fake work documents or work under false names. Others come legally on a temporary work visa. And some, again like Calleja-Garcia, attain legal working status at some point after they get here.

In Winston-Salem, the immigrants moved into jobs in construction, into factories packaging T-shirts and toiletries, and assembling window frames and drainage pipes for swimming pools. They moved into bakeries and the kitchens of restaurants. They opened their own restaurants and shops, hiring family members and friends.

Calleja-Garcia stuck with construction. In 1992, he found a job pouring concrete for a company in Archdale. His starting pay was $9.50 an hour, and he wound up helping build megastores such as Home Depot, Lowe’s and Wal-Mart along Hanes Mall Boulevard. By the time he was laid off in 2002, he was earning $18 an hour.

He found work with a construction company in Greenville, S.C., and returned to Winston-Salem on the weekends. The travel was worth it. In Cuaji, a day laborer might earn 120 pesos, or $10 a day, half of what he was earning per hour in North Carolina.

Understanding heritage

In Cuaji, the name Winston-Salem is familiar.

A North Carolina license plate hangs on the blue pickup truck of a fisherman who used to work in a bakery in Winston-Salem. In a pool hall, a Carolina blue baseball cap stands out amid a sea of cowboy hats. A man wearing a Duke T-shirt works on a ranch, roping cattle to be vaccinated.

Many residents have spent some time working in Winston-Salem, while others have friends or family members here now. Those who have returned or remained behind said they prefer the open spaces of Mexico’s small towns and the absence of the rules and regulations found in the United States.

The Afro-Mexicans know that they look different from their countrymen, but they have only recently begun to truly understand their heritage.

The people have their own story about how blacks came to live in the Costa Chica region. The story, passed down by mothers and grandmothers for generations, tells of a shipload of slaves that crashed at Punta Maldonado, a rocky beach 20 miles from Cuaji.

The slaves are said to have sought refuge in the surrounding hot and densely wooded region. These escaped slaves formed small, isolated communities, one of the largest being Caujinicuilapa. Over generations, the slaves mixed with native Mexicans. Some people believe that the descendants of these original slaves - thought to be no more than 200 in number - now populate the entire Costa Chica.

Marina Roman told the shipwreck story to her teenage son, Silvestre, one afternoon in the living room of their small apartment in Skyline Village.

Silvestre was skeptical.

“We’re from Aztec warriors,” insisted Silvestre, whose classmates mistook him for an African-American when he started school in the U.S.

Then explain why the people in this part of Mexico are so dark, his mother responded.

“It’s all because of the sun,” Silvestre said.

Historians tell a different story. Many agree that the first blacks arrived to the Costa Chica in the second half of the 16th century in the company of a Spanish slaver, el Mariscal de Castilla.

In the Afro-Mestizo Museum in Cuaji, one of the town’s most well-maintained buildings, Hector Senteno Mejia, a history student from the University of Toluca in Mexico, studied a floor-to-ceiling map depicting slave-trade routes from Africa to Central and South America.

“The majority of people in Mexico don’t know about Afro-Mexicans,” said Mejia, who was in Cuaji for two weeks studying the remnants of African culture that remain there.

Mejia disputed the shipwreck myth. He said that slaves came from Guinea and Congo, by way of Patagonia and settled more widely and more systematically in the Costa Chica.

“Blacks were too dispersed throughout the region to have come from the same shipwreck,” he said.

In recent years, there has been a new emphasis among some in Mexico, and some outside, on recognizing the African roots of those in the Costa Chica.

According to Vaughn, political organization of Afro-Mexicans began during the 1990s. On the public level, Mexico’s Federal Office of Popular Culture funded a program called Nuestra Tercera Raiz (Our Third Root) that explored black presence throughout Mexico. It also funded the Afro-Mestizo Museum, which opened in 1999. A grass-roots movement, led by a priest from Trinidad, Father Glyn Jemmott, simultaneously gained momentum.

Arturo Cruz Montero, who owns a casket store in Cuaji, said he thinks that about half the people in the town are interested in their African heritage. Montero attended an annual gathering to discuss Afro-Mexicans and their heritage in Cuaji in March 2002. He said that there were white and black visitors, many of them academics from the U.S. He said that the meeting drew 600 people, nearly six times the number who had attended the first such “Encuentro” in 1997.

“It’s beautiful when your children know where they are from,” he said.

Getting past barriers

The cultural differences are evident every day in Skyline Village, as are the simple ways that people try to get beyond those barriers - and sometimes succeed.

One warm spring day atTiti’s Convenience Store, a young black woman fanned herself with her hand, telling Arrellanes, “es caliente,” using a Spanish word for “hot.” But caliente means “spicy,” a different type of hot. Arrellanes gently corrected her. “Es calor,” she said.

At least once a day, Arrellanes is affectionately called “Miss Titi” by her black customers, who take their a cue from the misspelled sign out front - “Titi’s Convience Store.” Arrellanes laughed as she explained the origin of the store’s name. Titi was a nickname she gave her son. It’s a type of small monkey.

On a Saturday in March, a black baseball coach, Arthur Green, went door-to-door in the apartment complex, recruiting players for Little League tryouts later that day at a nearby park. He did not speak Spanish, and the Mexicans greeted him with suspicion as he explained why he was there. Suspicion is a constant for those here illegally when an American stranger knocks on the door. None of the Mexicans sent their children to the tryouts.

One night, Tequilla Wilson, a young black woman attending Winston-Salem State University, met some of her Mexican neighbors one night in a desperate effort to complete her Spanish homework. She wandered around the complex, searching for anyone who could help her out. Some Mexican neighbors kindly obliged.

For the most part, the blacks and Mexicans keep to themselves. The apartment complex, once named Columbia Terrace, was built about 1950 as the first low-income housing project in the city. For years, its residents were predominantly black, but in the 1990s Hispanics began to move in. The process has accelerated in the past four years, and today the complex’s 169 units are about evenly split between blacks and Mexicans, mostly from the Costa Chica.

In this and other neighborhoods around the city, Mexicans and blacks live side by side, a condition that can create tension.

The city’s human-relations department investigates and mediates complaints of discrimination and studies and promotes ways to increase positive community relations.

Director Wanda Allen-Abraha said that her department has heard “all kinds of misconceptions and stereotypes” about Hispanics and blacks.

Some blacks, Allen-Abraha said, complain that Hispanics get special tax breaks or are able to get business loans more easily than blacks. They say that Hispanics pack too many people into one house or apartment.

On the other hand, Allen-Abraha said, Hispanics complain that African-Americans have too many children out of wedlock, are all on welfare, and resent the Hispanics for taking jobs.

Allen-Abraha said she attributes much of the tension to economic factors.

“We have had a lot of downsizings and closings in our region,” she said. “With the general overall downturn of the economy, I think that’s making people compete even more for jobs.”

She predicted that as black, Hispanic and white children grow into adults, relationships between the city’s ethnic groups will improve and there will be a greater acceptance of other cultures.

“I think you’ll see a change in attitude,” she said. “I don’t think people will have much of a choice.”

As a start, the city’s Human Relations Commission and the Winston-Salem chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People are sponsoring a forum Thursday at 6 p.m. at El Cordero de Dios Moravian Church at Waughtown and Peachtree streets to encourage dialogue between the two groups.

In some ways, the forum is an acknowledgment that the Mexicans, who have slowly come to dominate areas of town, are here to stay.

Marina Arrellanes certainly is.

She works at her store seven days a week, 8:30 a.m. to 8:30 p.m., except on Saturday and Sunday, when she opens at 9. She worked on Easter and on Christmas.

The morning of April 7, though, Arrellanes locked the door of Titi’s at 7:30 a.m. She was wearing a light pink dress and clutching a big, black purse and a stack of papers.

Today, she would become a citizen.

The room at the Charlotte Sub Office of U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services slowly filled with 60 citizens-to-be from 33 countries. Most had entourages of family and friends armed with disposable cameras and flowers. Arrellanes was alone. Her son was at school, her husband at work.

She tucked a small American flag into her purse as she took her oath.

Citizenship means that she can work permanently in the country where she has already lived for 16 years. It means that she can always stay here with her three children - two of whom are citizens and one who is working on her citizenship application. Most of all, it means that she can bring her mother, whom she hasn’t seen in four years, to the United States for a visit, even if, as she learned later, she must wait a year to do so.

After her swearing-in, Arrellanes returned to Winston-Salem for a short, celebratory lunch at a Mexican restaurant.

By early afternoon, she had reopened Titi’s, slightly overdressed, her half-day vacation over.

http://www.playahata.com/?p=646
Here's an excerpt from Mexico's constitution:

Article 33

"The Federal Executive shall have the exclusive power to compel any foreigner whose remaining he may deem inexpedient to abandon the national territory immediately and without the necessity of previous legal action." It also states: "Foreigners may not in any way participate in the political affairs of the country."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1...nstitution_of_Mexico

The hypocrisy is 'off the hook'. ek

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