Posted on another site 'Race something. sorry
Jim Crow is a system of laws. True, it is a practice. It is a practice, however, based in law. It was supposed, even assumed, that the civil rights laws of the 1960s negated that legal structure. It didn't. The significant failure was, no is, the fact that the Voting Rights Act of 1965 is temporary. It was from its original construction.
No, the entire law was not made temporary. Only the parts addressing PROTECTION on the basis of 'race and color' were made temporary, particularly Section 4(a). This section was given an original life, in 1965, of 5 years at which time the section was to be 'reconsidered'. It was.
In 1970, Congress 'reconsidered' the section, and voted to extend its PROTECTION on the basis of 'race and color' for another 5 years, at which time the section would again be 'reconsidered.' It was.
In 1975, Congress again 'reconsidered' the section, voted to extend its PROTECTION on the basis of 'race and color', this time for another 7 years, at which time the section would again be 'reconsidered'. It was.
In 1982, Congress again 'reconsidered' the section. Then-President Ronald Reagan wanted 'it' terminated. It is unclear whether he wanted the entire law repealed, or only its Section 4(a). Then-Senator Dole (R)Kansas succeeded in getting a compromise of 15 years extension to a vote in the subcommittee.. Then-Senator Jesse Helms established a filibuster. Senator Orrin Hatch (R)Utah, chairman of the subcommittee, negotiated a settlement of 'termination in 25 years' for Section 4(a) not the entire law.
That settlement passed in the subcommittee, and passed in the full committee, and passed in the full Senate in August 1982. This reestablished the circumstance African American-Americans were held in as of 1877, effective August 2007.
The legal structure of Jim Crow was enabled with the signing of the agreement Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina with the Republican Party and the Republican candidate for the Presidency in the election of 1876, Rutherford B. Hayes. He had loss the popular for President to the Democratic candidate a Mr. Tilden.
The reward for signing the agreement was that the Republican Party's candidate was assured of the electoral votes (18) needed to create a tie. An additional single vote from the State of Oregon was swung with the resignation of an otherwise ineligible 'elector' who was a federal employe of the United States post office. His vote gave the presidency to Hayes. And...empowered Jim Crow.
Jim Crow thrived with the endorsement, and support of the United States for the next 88 years until the bitterly fought enactment of the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
In 2 years and 5 months, August 2007, the constraint on Jim Crow in America will be released.
Battered, but alive and well in the United States