"I spoke to a group of white bankers about reparations. It DID NOT go well"
. . .
Excerpts: Lehman Brothers business empire started in the slave trade JPMorgan Chase company is linked to slavery
New York Life /its predecessor (Nautilus Insurance Company) sold slaveholder policies
N M Rothschild & Sons Bank in London is linked to slavery Norfolk Southern is linked to the slave trade via The Mobile & Girard company
USA Today RE: parent company, E.W. Scripps and Gannett, is linked to slavery
Tiffany and Co. was originally financed with profits from a Connecticut cotton mill. that operated from cotton picked by slaves
Aetna, Inc., insured the lives of slaves during the 1850’s and reimbursed slave owners when their slaves died CSX Railway used slave labor to construct portions the U.S. rail lines
Brown Brothers Harriman is the oldest and largest private investment bank and securities firm in the United States owned hundreds of enslaved Africans and financed the cotton economy by lending millions to southern planters, merchants and cotton brokers
Barclays, the British multinational banking and financial services company is linked to slavery
The Canadian National Railway Company linked to slavery The Mobile & Ohio, now part of Canadian National, valued their slaves lost to the war and emancipation at $199,691 on record. That amount is currently worth $2.2 million
Fleet Boston Financial evolved from an earlier financial institution, Providence Bank, founded by John Brown who was a slave trader and owned ships used to transport enslaved Africans - financed Brown’s slave voyages and profited from them. Brown even reportedly helped charter what became Brown University
Brooks Brothers , The suit retailer started their company in the 1800s by selling clothes for slaves to slave traders Bank of America found that two of its predecessor banks (Boatman Savings Institution and Southern Bank of St. Louis) had ties to slavery and another predecessor (Bank of Metropolis) accepted slaves as collateral on loans
Two institutions that became part of Wachovia (Georgia Railroad and Banking Company and the Bank of Charleston) owned or accepted slaves as collateral on mortgaged property or loans - Wachovia Corporation (now owned by Wells Fargo)
AIG completed the purchase of American General Financial Group, a Houston-based insurer that owns U.S. Life Insurance Company. A U.S. Life policy on an enslaved African living in Kentucky was reprinted in a 1935 article about slave insurance - AIG says it has “found documentation indicating” U.S. Life insured enslaved Africans
Brown Brothers Harriman – a Wall Street bank that owned hundreds of slaves and lent millions to Southern planters, merchants and cotton traders
Harvard Law School – endowed with money from Isaac Royall, an Antiguan slave owner and sugar grower Princeton – raised money and recruited students from rich, slave-owning families in the South and the Caribbean
Dartmouth and the
University of Delaware
Yale University – money from slave trading went to its first endowed scholarships, professorship and library
[This doesn't even cover all the European Corporations with 'ties' /'links' to slavery; where 'ties' and 'links' equals: began with profits from slavery/slave trade, financed with proceeds from slave trading, and/or profited from the facilitation of slavery]
WALL STREET . . . "Wall Street" is born of slavery, with enslaved Africans building a wall in 1653 to protect Dutch settlers from Indian raids. This walkway and wooden fence, made up of pointed logs and running river to river, later was known as Wall Street, the home of world finance. Enslaved and free Africans were largely responsible for the construction of the early city, first by clearing land, then by building a fort, mills, bridges, stone houses, the first city hall, the docks, the city prison, Dutch and English churches, the city hospital and Fraunces Tavern. At the corner of Wall Street and Broadway, they helped erect Trinity Church" . . .