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Domestic Violence: Living On the Edge of Fear
By S.B. Morris, Special to AOL BlackVoices



Helen Hall, the operations director of the Domestic Violence South East Intake Center in Washington, DC, uses this scenario in her outreach programs: Imagine you're at the dinner table with your significant other of many years. Both of you are talking about your hectic day. The conversation turns heated. Suddenly you're arguing, and then, out of nowhere, your mate goes off, slapping you in the face for the first time.

"What's your next move?" she asks.

According to Hall, most women would waste valuable time trying to rationalize this violence and questioning themselves. Did I bring on this attack? Will it happen again? Did I miss the warning signs? Should I stay or leave? Are my kids in danger, too?

"Too many women wait too long to leave abusive relationships," explains Hall, who is herself a survivor do domestic violence. The intake center may be a domestic violence "emergency room," referring victims to city resources such as shelter, food, legal services and counseling, but it unless women take the first step and walk in there's not much Hall or her staff can do. "Unfortunately, they accept make-up flowers and it'll-never-happen-again promises until it occurs repeatedly and more violently."

The result of these rationalizations and temporary truces? An act of domestic violence occurs every 18 seconds, according to the National Network for Family Resiliency. Not only are women five to eight times more likely than men to experience violence at the hands of intimate partner, but they are also more likely to be killed by a partner, according to the Family Violence Prevention Fund, with an average of three women being murdered by their husbands or boyfriends daily in the United States. The organization reports that domestic violence is the most common (but unrecognized) killer of women in this country.

"It appears that African American women are at an increased risk of intimate partner homicide," said Dr. Carolyn West, editor of 'Violence in the Lives of Black Women: Battered, Black and Blue' (Haworth Press, 2003) and associate professor of psychology at the University of Washington, Tacoma. "One predictor is having a partner who is unemployed. And, since African American women and men of color are disproportionately represented among the under-employed, with easier access to weapons and drugs, it makes sense that domestic violence cases would be higher, too."

While domestic violence -- an act of abuse, both physical and non-physical, between intimate partners or family members -- isn't restricted to any particular gender, economic, racial, class or religious group, the rates of severe partner abuse are higher among blacks. The U.S. Department of Justice reports that black females experience domestic violence 35 percent higher than that of white females, and about 22 times the rate of women of other races. Black males experienced domestic violence at a rate of about 62 percent higher than that of white males and about 22 times the rate of men of other races.

"Same-sex [male intimate partner] violence is a growing issue, too. It can get very violent. Since many times the same dynamics apply [as in heterosexual relationships], there's usually one that's more controlling and one who's more passive," said Hall.

Hall advises that if you experience any of the following warning signs in your mate, whether male or female, please proceed in the relationship with caution. "We have a lot to teach ourselves as a culture about loving ourselves, so that we can keep from settling for some of these relationships that we know aren't right. We know we see signs from the very beginning, but we settle for them," said Hall.

Don't trust partners who want to know where you are 24-7 daily, keep you from socializing outside of their watchful eyes or ostracize you from family and friends. Most abusers start by trying to control you emotionally and financially, and graduate to physical abuse as the relationship proceeds.

"If you have a person who has a history of abuse in their background, I would definitely be asking them a lot of questions, too," said Dr. West, a college professor who teaches courses, counsels and consults on family violence issues. "This too could be a potential problem if they haven't learned how to handle conflict."

Don't ever make excuses for abusive behavior, warned Hall. Domestic violence isn't caused by alcohol or drugs, problematic childhoods, war flashbacks, work stress, physical illness, jealousy or insecurity, racism, poverty, an inability to express feelings or financial problems. It's about power, control and dominance. It's an aggressive choice the abuser makes to overpower victims through violent behavior. The behavior is reinforced every time the abuser gets his/her way through violent actions.

"There's a tendency among women to want to rescue men, particularly among Black women because [they] perceive that there's a shortage of Black men, and a desire to protect them from the legal system," said Dr. West.

There are many reasons why women and men stay with abusive partners, including any or all of the following: Waiting for change, kids are involved, threats of more violence, the abuser controls the finances, the abuse is infrequent, spanning years in some cases, personal beliefs about marriage or the victim's childhood experiences with abuse (her mom was abused by her daddy).

"People assume that the children don't see it or suffer the impact. [Domestic violence] can have a profound impact on children. They may have difficulty in school, suffer from depression, low self-esteem or a broad range of other symptoms," said Dr. West. While the child may not grow up to be an abuser, the emotional impact may be present in some form, she said. Unfortunately, most battered women and men make several attempts to leave without success. For many women, they don't summon the courage to leave until their children show signs of the impact of domestic violence.

"It's best to believe an abuser the first time he shows his or her true self and just walk away," said Hall. "Talk to an advocate to find out as much as you can about [your rights]. There are people at the court whom you can talk to. If you have access to a computer do a search online and use [the resources]."

If you or someone you know is being physically or emotionally abused, there are many organizations that can help you quickly, safely and confidentially. Contact the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence for assistance finding resources, or in a time of crisis call the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 1-800-799-SAFE.

If you are ever in immediate danger, call 911.



About the Author
S.B. Morris is a freelance writer based in the Washington, D.C. area who specializes in health and medical issues.
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This is an issue close to my heart and one I don't think the Black press pays enough attention to. I've seen domestic violence up close and I volunteered for a bit as a Domestic Violence Victim Advocate at the Brooklyn court house. I am going to try to keep my emotions out of this, but I apologize in advance if I lose it.sck

I find parts of this article contradictory (domestic violence rarely starts as something physical like in the mock scenario, as they point out later; a partner who has a propensity for violence will do so whether or not he/she is employed, etc). However, my jaw just completely dropped when I saw this:
quote:
The U.S. Department of Justice reports that black females experience domestic violence 35 percent higher than that of white females, and about 22 times the rate of women of other races. Black males experienced domestic violence at a rate of about 62 percent higher than that of white males and about 22 times the rate of men of other races.


What in the world is going on?? I think in part we are taking out the aggression we feel about our place in society on each other - the only place the Black man/woman can express any "power" is at home. Second, I think we have embraced violence toward each other. All of the couples I know who consider "slap boxing" each other and "play fighting" as fun/appropriate behavior have been Black. Lastly, widescale mistrust of law enforcement escolates the violence. Instead of calling the police, it seems Black women and men are delivering retaliatory beatings.
Domestic Violence - this is one of the core reasons why I ask our brothers in the Diaspora to consider arranged marriages. In an arranged marriage it is not just the couple who come together but the two families come together as one unit with the marriage. In this situation it is very difficult to abuse your spouse without getting into SERIOUS TROUBLE with the bigger family. I can not speak for the rest of Africa but from my part of the black world where people adopt this kind of marriage domestic violence is very rare almost unheard of. In this kind of marriage your in-laws (these include cousins aunts and Uncles) are your close friends and people you hold dear so one is careful not to treat their daughter badly let alone hit her.
quote:
Originally posted by henry38:
Domestic Violence - this is one of the core reasons why I ask our brothers in the Diaspora to consider arranged marriages. In an arranged marriage it is not just the couple who come together but the two families come together as one unit with the marriage. In this situation it is very difficult to abuse your spouse without getting into SERIOUS TROUBLE with the bigger family. I can not speak for the rest of Africa but from my part of the black world where people adopt this kind of marriage domestic violence is very rare almost unheard of. In this kind of marriage your in-laws (these include cousins aunts and Uncles) are your close friends and people you hold dear so one is careful not to treat their daughter badly let alone hit her.


Peace......

I agree....dating is a new phenomenon....as well as the highly individualized meaning of marriage.....been wanting to say something like this....but kept to myself...you have expressed this nicely.

I cosign...

Peace,
Virtue
quote:
Originally posted by henry38:
Domestic Violence - this is one of the core reasons why I ask our brothers in the Diaspora to consider arranged marriages. In an arranged marriage it is not just the couple who come together but the two families come together as one unit with the marriage. In this situation it is very difficult to abuse your spouse without getting into SERIOUS TROUBLE with the bigger family. I can not speak for the rest of Africa but from my part of the black world where people adopt this kind of marriage domestic violence is very rare almost unheard of. In this kind of marriage your in-laws (these include cousins aunts and Uncles) are your close friends and people you hold dear so one is careful not to treat their daughter badly let alone hit her.



Dear Henry,
I am not sure that arranged marriages will be the solution of the problem of domestic violence. I am personally not in favor of it. I just cannot see myself marrying some 22-year-old lady who happens to be the daughter of a family friend of my parents but whom I have never met before. I fear that such arrangement will only serve to place me as an one-way money-ladden ticket to the States.
I will admit that this arrangement works in a number of relationships but I think that is culture dependent. I don't think it would work well here in the States because even in the black community where one of the values is keeping a close knitt family in line of African-based traditions, having one's in-laws, uncles or cousins all up in one's business so to speak is not the most welcomed tradition in today's world.
I think there are other alternatives to reversing the trend of domestic violence. First, enforcing the laws that exist already. Secondly, re-educating ourselves in church, school etc and the community at large that violence between each is not desirable or celebrated in music vidoes. I feel churches so be more active in teaching spouses in the early stages of their marriage how to communicate without the need of violence.
On the flip side, an increasingly rising problem I have noticed is the false claims of domestic violence by one spouse against the other. This is usually done in the aim of getting back at the other for wrongs done in the past or simply to chase the spouse out to gain sole ownership of the joint property. This is indeed is not an uncommon phemonenon within the Nigerian community here in the States. This is in turn could explain the nonchalant attitude of law enforcement in response to domestic calls in general.


Felix
I don't see how adopting arranged marriages will have an effect on domestic violence. Close-knit Black families frequently hide/deny the domestic violence going on within. Some of these families even encourage men and women to stay in dangerous situations to keep up appearances or "show their dedication to their family", etc. Even when the families don't participate in that foolishness, the battered spouse will most of the time conceal what is going on and try to protect his/her abuser.
quote:
Domestic Violence - this is one of the core reasons why I ask our brothers in the Diaspora to consider arranged marriages. In an arranged marriage it is not just the couple who come together but the two families come together as one unit with the marriage. In this situation it is very difficult to abuse your spouse without getting into SERIOUS TROUBLE with the bigger family. I can not speak for the rest of Africa but from my part of the black world where people adopt this kind of marriage domestic violence is very rare almost unheard of. In this kind of marriage your in-laws (these include cousins aunts and Uncles) are your close friends and people you hold dear so one is careful not to treat their daughter badly let alone hit her.
by Henry38

See I learned something here. I was always under the impression that in arranged marriages abuse and disrespect is rampant. This impression is based on the few East Indian arranged marriages that I've been aquainted with.

Thanks tfro
quote:
Originally posted by Frenchy:
I don't see how adopting arranged marriages will have an effect on domestic violence. Close-knit Black families frequently hide/deny the domestic violence going on within. Some of these families even encourage men and women to stay in dangerous situations to keep up appearances or "show their dedication to their family", etc. Even when the families don't participate in that foolishness, the battered spouse will most of the time conceal what is going on and try to protect his/her abuser.


Can I have a witness?!
I don't think arranged marriages is the one solution to violence in the home rather this discussion can be seen as one of many different ways we can investigate to bring harmony into the black home. I encourage that we talk more about this subject. Talking about it is not necessarily solving the problem but the benefit is the subject is forced into the open and discussed more often. This makes more people become aware of the option of arranged marriages and it's benefits as opposed to what is currently practiced among black people in the west. Hopefully by actively promoting this form of marriage among our people in the Diaspora the awareness would lead to some actually trying it out to see whether it is the new way to move forward or not

With regard to domestic violence I have seen where the law is called in because of the abusive situation and from my experience it does not help as the the result is usually the disintegration of the family. This is in my opinion is a far worse scenario. Because of this we have to investigate other options of saving the black family and one of these solutions in my opinion is 'arranged marriages.' I am proposing this option because in the arranged marriage situations that I know of from my culture, domestic violence is very rare.

Africa is a huge place and I am the first to admit arranged marriages practiced in one part is vastly different from what is practiced elsewhere. But the benefit of discussing the subject creates the opportunity of exploring the different aspects that is arranged marriage and settling for what works best for our children in a fast paced western black generation

It is true there are many flavors of arranged marriage and experiences from each vary but the arranged marriage I am talking about is what I have seen practiced by my people in the Volta Region of Ghana. In this type of marriage though it is called arranged marriage it is the couple that are in charge of the whole process from the beginning to to the end. If the two people do not want each other there is no marriage. Let me describe this type of marriage as I know it and you can see how the parameters that come into play to make the marriage also work as a protection against divorce and other forms of abuse that plague the western type of marriage.

Those of us that were born and grew up in Africa but have spent all our adult life in the west have the unique advantage of comparing lives in the two halves while weighing the pros and cons without bias. I am not here to promote the traditional way over the western way, rather I believe there are good and strong points in both types of marriage and by exploring both cases we can pick and mix and come up with what would work best for us in the west

I am a bit pushed for time now but I promise I would come back and give a description of the type of arranged marriage I am talking about and then you can judge for yourselves whether it is worth investigating or not as an option to bring sanity to the black home.
henry38, I look forward to your message. I wonder if you (or anyone else with knowledge) might include a little bit about what happens in an arranged marriage when there IS domestic violence? Do the two families encourage the couple to stay together? Does the victim's family respond with violence? Is it discussed openly between the families? etc. Thanks! Smile
quote:
Originally posted by Frenchy:
Imagine you're at the dinner table with your significant other of many years. Both of you are talking about your hectic day. The conversation turns heated. Suddenly you're arguing, and then, out of nowhere, your mate goes off, slapping you in the face for the first time. "What's your next move?" she asks.



There's alot wrong with this scenerio first of all. Domestic abuse doesn't just happen "suddenly" excluding other behaviors that led up to the abuse. Domestic abuse, much like verbal abuse, and infidelity occurs and continues because women accept it. More importantly, they ignore clear warnings and other signs of poor character in the beginning of the relationship. The reason is because many women would rather accept a bad mate rather than have no mate at all and this act of desparation in addition to a low self-esteem and hopelessness gives men an advantage. It gives men sole custody of the relationship in terms of how the relationship will be managed. A woman should never allow this to happen. What's even more insane is that these very same women are willing to pledge "till-death-due-us- part" loyalty to men who they know are not being faithful to them! Another serious problem is that women are simply not waiting long enough before they agree to have sex. Before women get the chance to figure out what the fellow is about, she's bonded with him, and feels almost maternally obligated to stay with him regardless of his behavior and abuse. Women have got to wise up and stop allowing men to take advantage of them.
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quote:
Originally posted by henry38:
Let me describe this type of marriage as I know it and you can see how the parameters that come into play to make the marriage also work as a protection against divorce and other forms of abuse that plague the western type of marriage.

Those of us that were born and grew up in Africa but have spent all our adult life in the west have the unique advantage of comparing lives in the two halves while weighing the pros and cons without bias. I am not here to promote the traditional way over the western way, rather I believe there are good and strong points in both types of marriage and by exploring both cases we can pick and mix and come up with what would work best for us in the west

I am a bit pushed for time now but I promise I would come back and give a description of the type of arranged marriage I am talking about and then you can judge for yourselves whether it is worth investigating or not as an option to bring sanity to the black home.



There are Four stages to this kind of marriage.

The first stage

Boy meets Girl


This can happen in a variety of ways. It can be the boy and girl meets as is done in the western society and fall in love. Another way is the parents meet a boy or a girl who they think would make a good mate to their son or daughter and asks their child if they could be interested in this person. There is NEVER a case where a prospective mate is forced on anyone. The second part is usually favored because there is more choice. The first part is usually a lottery for the girl as she has to wait for someone to express interest in her. If she like someone and the person is too shy to approach her then it's her loss. In the second part she can confide in her mother or close relatives who would do the chasing of the man on her behalf. This way she can still maintain her dignity and play hard to get.

When the young couple like each other enough in either of the above examples and want to get married then stage two comes into play.

Stage Two.

The Families Meet.


This is a very important stage and what happens here is what determines a successful and meaningful marriage. The difference over a western marriage here is that even though the marriage is between the young couple it is their two families that take over completely and run the whole show. The family takes paramount interest from what happens hence forth. Contrast that with what happens in western marriages where the couple behave as trees without roots and do as they please and their families are relegated to spectators watching from the sidelines.

The boys family approach the girls parents about their son's desire to marry their daughter. The boys family during this initial foray announce their intention by bringing drinks and presents for the girl and her parents.

After this initial meeting the the girl's family hold a conference with their daughter and inform her of what has happened. She can flatly refuse the man's advances by refusing to accept the drinks and presents which would stop the whole process dead. If this happens the drinks and presents are returned to the man's family and they know that the girl does not like their son. Alternatively she could just listen and ask her family to investigate the matter further. This is a signal to her parents and family members to get their extensive network of friends and extended relatives to put out their feelers for further information about the man and his family. When enough information has been gathered the girls family get together in conference to analyze the information and then to decide whether this is someone/family they would like their daughter to join. By the way the boys family would be discreetly investigating the girls background and her family record round about the same time. If through this investigation anything untoward is found on either side, e.g. the girl is lazy or the man is a violent man and a drunkard, either side can decide to present the gathered information to their child and with his or her permission call the whole thing off.

The benefit here is the couple have enough information about each other before making a decision on going ahead and getting married. This very important part sadly is missing from western style of how people meet and marry and can lead to disaster as one can get married to an axe murderer without knowing who they are getting into bed with.

If the information gathered from either side ifs favorable then the girl's family request a second meeting with the boys family. This meeting is more important as now Uncles and Aunties from both sides sit in on the meeting. Both sides are actually now posturing to impress on the other how important their son or daughter is to them. This very important step is to let the other side know their child is very highly valued and so would not stand idly by and watch their child treated badly in this marriage. There can be as many meetings like this as the family members get to know each other and start building friendships and bridges. If enough of this is done by the time the marriage takes place the two sides get to know each other very well and start treating each other as one family.


Stage three

The Marriage


Now a date is fixed and there is an announcement for friends and relatives to attend the marriage ceremony which usually involves traditional drumming and dancing with a lot of booze all catered for by the man's family.

I must point out that it is heavily impressed on the boy by now that the girl he is marrying is on loan to him. This means any problems he encounters he has to consult the bigger family and not take matters into his own hands. ( I believe this is where the man's wings are clipped to make sure he does not abuse his new wife). The loan part means that if the woman were to die her family claims her back and bury her.

Stage four

Problem Solving


The family understands that every relationship has problems and for this there is adequate provision to ensure the couple are not left on their own to take matters into their own hands when they have differences that threaten their marriage. The husband is not allowed to ever beat his wife under any circumstances. If the woman does something which is very bad, the husband is under obligation to send her back to her parents or her family. As I said earlier she is on loan to him so he has not got complete rights over her. She always belongs to her family first. If there is any threat to her well being she has to be sent back to her family.

After sending the woman to her family either party (the husband or the woman's family) would request a hearing and after consultations with the elders a date is set for the first of many meetings. This is an arbitration and the heavy weights of both sides that are the elders sit on the meeting. In this kind of meeting and all the ones I have mentioned before, members do not directly address one another but speak through a third person called the Okyeame. This is done to avoid flaming language and reduce tension to the barest minimum. The family can meet like this as many times as possible to sort out the couples difference and bring them back together.

The above is briefly the Ewe way of marriage in the Volta Region of Ghana. As you can see it is very intensive. These are poor people who can not afford to have broken homes and broken families as is common to us in the west. If our high rate of divorce and domestic violence were to be allowed to take root it would destroy the social structure and destroy them as a people. As I said earlier it works as I have hardly ever seen or heard of domestic violence among them.


My personal observation people get abused if they are not perceived to have anyone (family) behind them. I believe this is true of the sixteen year old teenager messing about freely with every Tom Dick and Harry in her neighborhood and eventually a PIMP takes over and runs her miserable life to the ground. I believe this is also true of a woman married to a man without her family in her life and if she is not lucky and this man turns out to be a brute it is this man who acts as the PIMP abusing her on all levels in the home she has built with him. In both cases the chances of abuse are high because there is no one to answer to with how one treats this teenager or woman.

Sisters have to understand that they have to put their safety first and not go into relationships like a tree without roots. In such a situation it does not take much of a crisis to have the whole shaky arrangement toppling over. In my opinion Sisters are well protected from every kind of abuse if they enter marriage with the ROOT network of the family firmly behind them as is done in the arranged marriage.
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quote:
Originally posted by henry38:
Disclaimer

The above is just one of many options, it is not the solution. I am the first to put up my hand that I do not believe there is one particular solution to Domestic Violence. So please let us explore other possible solutions.


Peace Henry....

I agree with you regarding finding more solutions for Domestic Violence.....including the "reactionary" end such as police response and spousal safe houses.....

However, regarding arranged marriages.....thank you for your post....I had a long dissertation written, that now as I look back would have bored everyone to tears.....thank you for your succinct post.....

Peace,
Virtue
quote:
The U.S. Department of Justice reports that black females experience domestic violence 35 percent higher than that of white females, and about 22 times the rate of women of other races. Black males experienced domestic violence at a rate of about 62 percent higher than that of white males and about 22 times the rate of men of other races.


What in the world is going on??
____________________________________________

What is going on is the old racist trick of slanting the statistics by leaving out certain crucial fact, such as the fact that white women or less likely to admit to the abuse, call the police, file charges against their mates----that's ONE thing that is going on; also, don't forget that since our communities are under constant serveillance by the police they are more likely to "happen" upon a domestic situation in the Black community more often that an average white community. When it comes to domestic violence being compared racially in this country, it is not different than how this country makes drug abuse comparisons racially.
quote:
Originally posted by Frenchy:
I don't see how adopting arranged marriages will have an effect on domestic violence. Close-knit Black families frequently hide/deny the domestic violence going on within. Some of these families even encourage men and women to stay in dangerous situations to keep up appearances or "show their dedication to their family", etc. Even when the families don't participate in that foolishness, the battered spouse will most of the time conceal what is going on and try to protect his/her abuser.

I agree, but there is more to this phenomenon that the article didn't cover and should have. Most abusers do their best to isolate the victim from the rest of their support structure. Even in extended families that are close and would have a natural insulation to this kind of behaviour, find themselves seeing and hearing less from the victim. Often the abuse has been going on for years before the family even knows about it. Abusers need for their victims to feel dependent on them so they can be controlled. Many long time victims of domestic abuse, when asked why they didn't get out of the situation, they say "Where would I go?" If the victim has friends and family to use for support, the abuser finds his vicitim gone rather quickly.

We all need to do a better job of caring for each other, IMHO.
quote:
Originally posted by Black Viking:
I agree, but there is more to this phenomenon that the article didn't cover and should have. Most abusers do their best to isolate the victim from the rest of their support structure. Even in extended families that are close and would have a natural insulation to this kind of behaviour, find themselves seeing and hearing less from the victim. Often the abuse has been going on for years before the family even knows about it. Abusers need for their victims to feel dependent on them so they can be controlled. Many long time victims of domestic abuse, when asked why they didn't get out of the situation, they say "Where would I go?" If the victim has friends and family to use for support, the abuser finds his vicitim gone rather quickly.

We all need to do a better job of caring for each other, IMHO.
Once again Black Viking.... Very accurate....

The bolded parts are especially true...


Peace,
Virtue
quote:
Many long time victims of domestic abuse, when asked why they didn't get out of the situation, they say "Where would I go?" If the victim has friends and family to use for support, the abuser finds his vicitim gone rather quickly.


This has not at all been my experience with these women (which has been somewhat extensive) and in my own experience. Domestic abuse victims are kept emotionally isolated, and sometimes physically isolated, but they frequently turn to others for temporary help. They call the police, they run to the homes of friends and family, they bang on neighbors doors, etc but the reason is not because they are necessarily ready to make a permanent move. It is because they want whatever violence is going on at the moment to stop. Law enforcement, friends, and family often get to a point of feeling "Why should I come and help you again when you are just going to go straight back to your abuser when things cool down?" These women are terrified that they will not be able to make it on their own financially and emotionally. They are terrified that their children will be taken away from them by the state (a very real threat in this country where domestic abuse victims can be and ARE prosecuted for child abuse for keeping their children in a dangerous environment). They are fearful of being killed. The most dangerous time in an abusive relationship is when the victim decides to leave. That is when most victims are hunted down and killed (in "secure" shelters, at the homes of friends and family, anywhere). This is what keeps them from leaving the abusive relationship.

The longer a victim deals with abuse, the more he/she feels that they can somewhat handle it or perhaps more accurately, manage it. They know what will set off the abuser, what the pattern of violence is. When it gets more severe than normal, they escape for a time. As the relationship progressing "the norm" becomes more and more violent.
quote:
Originally posted by ma'am:
I agree with Frenchy.

Just having a support network doesn't get all abused away from their abusers.

The best programs lose those they try to help.

Domestic violence is a complex thing.

I agree with Frenchy as well, and I understand that domestic violence is a complex issue. I was simply adding another piece of the puzzle, an important part that the article missed.

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