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The Great Emancipator’s original solution for America’s race problem.


Amazing Fact About the Negro No. 92: When President Abraham Lincoln met with free black leaders in 1862, what did he propose?


Today marks the anniversary of President Abraham Lincoln’s “shot heard ’round the world.” I’m referring, of course, to the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation he fired off from the White House on Sept. 22, 1862, five days after the real bullets had been fired 70 miles outside of Washington, D.C., at the Battle of Antietam (then and now the bloodiest day in American history, with close to 23,000 casualties). 


What little Union victory there was in Gen. Robert E. Lee’s withdrawal from Maryland gave Lincoln the opening he needed to issue the Confederacy his ultimatum: If it remained in a state of rebellion come Jan. 1, 1863, he would sign an executive order rendering “all” of its “slaves … then, thenceforward, and forever free.”


For any student of American history, this is well-trod ground. But here’s what you may not know about those crowded days of late summer 1862. While weighing emancipation, Lincoln also had a very different kind of ultimatum on his mind—for African Americans.


For much of his first years in office, Lincoln was obsessed with solving America’s seemingly intractable race problem by persuading free blacks to lead the way for an exodus that would wash the United States of the original sin of slavery—without having to live alongside those it had enslaved.  


To help sell his plan, the president had a meeting convened with local black leaders in Washington. It was billed to them as a policy conversation, but Lincoln wasn’t really eager to listen. He wanted to deliver a message about a mission, and they had been chosen to receive it.


The African-American Delegation


Historian Kate Masur helps recount the strange-but-true tale in her essay “The African American Delegation to Abraham Lincoln: A Reappraisal,” in the June 2010 issue of Civil War History. The chairman of the free-black delegation was Edward M. Thomas, messenger to the House of Representatives and a respected cultural leader in Washington's black community. He was known, Masur writes, “for his collections of fine arts, coins, and a personal library of almost six hundred volumes.”  

Joining Thomas in the delegation:

  • John F. Cook Jr., a local school leader who had studied at Oberlin College.
  • John T. Costin, who, like Thomas and Cook, was a Freemason.
  • Cornelius Clark, a member of the influential Social, Civil, and Statistical Association in Washington (Cook and Thomas also were members).
  • Benjamin M. McCoy, a teacher and leader in the Asbury Methodist Episcopal Church in Washington.

Their steward was Lincoln’s emigration commissioner, the white Methodist preacher James Mitchell, who had spread the word through the black churches of Washington that Father Abraham was interested in talking.


The delegates had been chosen the afternoon of Thursday, Aug. 14, 1862, during a meeting at the Union Bethel AME Church in Washington. The temperature in the room was lukewarm, for although the congregation was honored by the president’s request, the members also were wary.


By way of prayer and vigorous debate, they counseled each other to refrain from acting with haste or from giving the impression that such a select group of leaders could possibly represent the black community as a whole. More important, they pledged to remain steadfast against colonization when it came up, even passing a resolution, historian Eric Foner reports in his Pulitzer-prize winning book, The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery, “calling discussion of colonization ‘inexpedient, inauspicious, and impolitic.’ ”


With these warnings aired, the men then proceeded from Union Bethel AME Church to the executive mansion that very day. The tick-tock can be found in an editorial by the writer Cerebus (a pseudonym) in the Christian Recorderon Aug. 30, 1862:


“There was held in Union Bethel, on the 9th instant, a meeting of the several pastors of the city, which was presided over by Rev. James Mitchell, who styles himself (per advertisement) as the ‘Commissioner of Emigration.’ It was resolved at the said meeting that a delegation of five members of each church, headed by their pastor, be requested to meet in U.B. Church on the 14th instant, at 2 o’clock, P.M., to have a consultation with President LINCOLN. The President failing to appear, a committee of five were appointed to wait on him at the Presidential mansion, at 4 o’clock.”


The Lincoln Treatment


Ever since working on the PBS series Looking for Lincoln, and my companion book, Lincoln on Race and Slavery, in 2009, I’ve wondered what it must have been like to stand with those five free men of color when, arriving at the White House, they heard Honest Abe tell them that Congress had already set aside funds for a colonization scheme he supported and that he was counting on their support.


A stenographer was there to take down the president’s words, Foner writes, and soon Lincoln’s words would be all over the press. 


Here’s how he addressed the free black delegation: “You and we are different races. We have between us a broader difference than exists between almost any other two races. Whether it is right or wrong I need not discuss, but this physical difference is a great disadvantage to us both, as I think your race suffer very greatly, many of them by living among us, while ours suffer from your presence. In a word we suffer on each side. If this is admitted, it affords a reason at least why we should be separated.”  


This is the Abraham Lincoln they didn’t tell you about in school.

As the free black leaders soon discovered, Lincoln’s invitation to discuss policy was a pretext for a one-sided sales pitch.


“I do not propose to discuss this, but to present it as a fact with which we have to deal,” Lincoln continued. “I cannot alter it if I would. It is a fact, about which we all think and feel alike, I and you.”


To continue reading (page 1 and 2 posted of 6 total pages), open link below:



Original Post

It appears that Lincoln's view on Black people and his view on Slavery went back and forth, probably dependent on political and personal influence and given political climate.  From what I've read, and from what American 'historians' keep churning out, Lincoln's rhetoric has went from raging against Slavery, to indifference, all the way over to White supremacy mythology.


Lincoln was a politician, bent on saying and doing whatever it took to get in and stay in political office and ascend to the presidency; the same as politicians are today.   


Though the 'speech' Lincoln is supposed to have given to the Black delegation, reads really, conspicuously, beneath Lincoln's normal articulation, had Whites not brainwashed the Black people held as slaves, against Africa and their own people during slavery, returning to Africa would have been exactly what Black people would have wanted to do upon the end of slavery.   



Last edited by sunnubian

Yes he did.


Many wealthy abolitionist White Americans funded many trips to Africa.



The plan was to have African Americans move back to Africa and to colonize it. You had prominent upper class educated African Americans like Martin Delany and Henry McNeal Turner that supported the plan and made many trips to Africa. That was Marcus Garvey's plan and that's why he had the Black Star Line. 


So the plan was an expansion of Anglosphere imperialism via African Americans. But instead Lincoln died, the Freedman's Bureau collapsed under the pressure of Southern Whites, the Black codes were installed and colonization didn't reach the extent to support such a plan and we stayed here and got lynched for about 100 years. 


But yes, many of us, were never meant to actually stay in the USA. The first and foremost plan always was for us to leave the USA after our enslavement because many of us, European and African thought that what transpired was such an injustice to us that we would never ever ever have peace


And it's pretty damn true. 


There were plans to repatriate to Haiti, Mexico, Cuba, Western Africa and the Dominican Republic. Few of us actually did go to these place and stayed there. There is a prominent African American population in the Dominican Republic that been there for generations.


But we were never meant to actually stay in the USA after Slavery, we were meant to leave. If everything went as planned, we would probably have our own country and be like Hong Kong to the USA.

Last edited by GoodMan



Lincoln thought colonization could resolve the issue of slavery. 


For much of his career, Lincoln believed that colonization—or the idea that a majority of the African-American population should leave the United States and settle in Africa or Central America—was the best way to confront the problem of slavery.


His two great political heroes, Henry Clay and Thomas Jefferson, had both favored colonization; both were slave owners who took issue with aspects of slavery but saw no way that blacks and whites could live together peaceably.


Lincoln first publicly advocated for colonization in 1852, and in 1854 said that his first instinct would be “to free all the slaves, and send them to Liberia” (the African state founded by the American Colonization Society in 1821).


Nearly a decade later, even as he edited the draft of the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation in August of 1862, Lincoln hosted a delegation of freed slaves at the White House in the hopes of getting their support on a plan for colonization in Central America.


Given the “differences” between the two races and the hostile attitudes of whites towards blacks, Lincoln argued, it would be “better for us both, therefore, to be separated.”


Lincoln’s support of colonization provoked great anger among black leaders and abolitionists, who argued that African-Americans were as much natives of the country as whites, and thus deserved the same rights.


After he issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, Lincoln never again publicly mentioned colonization, and a mention of it in an earlier draft was deleted by the time the final proclamation was issued in January 1863.


Last edited by Fabulous

It's so funny that most of us don't know this information and it's since an important part of the African American history...


You can't just skip to Frederick Douglass and forget Martin Delany and Henry Mcneal Turner. 


The fact that White people didn't want us here after what they did and that African Americans didn't want to stay here after what they did and it was pretty much an agreeable thing that we should become educated and industralized and LEAVE TO BUILD OUR OWN COUNTRY.


This was the dominant idea from the eve of the Civil War until Lincolin's death but for some reason, Americans think we were supposed to integrate. 


Integration was the least desirable outcome. 

Last edited by GoodMan

Black people returning to Africa after Slavery was all over the place, from Whites wanting to used ex-Slaves[hostages] to go to Africa to instill colonization for America, to Whites who just wanted all Black people out of the country, period, to Whites that knew what lay ahead for free Blacks and genuinely thought they would be better of if they all returned to Africa.  


It was also all over the place with ex-slaves, from actually being willing to go along with the American colonization scheme, to those who wanted to leave America for Africa or anywhere to get away from racist Whites, to those wanting to return to Africa in the sense of going back home.


That's one of the reasons that Liberia never was what it could have been because ex-slaves did return to African and were given X-amount of land by Africans in the region, which would come to be called Liberia, but these ex-slaves came with the wrong and condescending attitudes toward Africans which eventually made such a reunion volatile.  I think those were the same complaints Africans had of returning ex-slaves to the region now called Sierra Leone.  

Originally Posted by sunnubian:


That's one of the reasons that Liberia never was what it could have been because ex-slaves did return to African and were given X-amount of land by Africans in the region, which would come to be called Liberia, but these ex-slaves came with the wrong and condescending attitudes toward Africans which eventually made such a reunion volatile.  I think those were the same complaints Africans had of returning ex-slaves to the region now called Sierra Leone.  


Of course...


Bougie Black people ruin everything and turn it into some kind of status contest. 


Kinda sad what happened to Liberia.

Last edited by GoodMan
Originally Posted by skuderjaymes:

Yes he did.  And if there was an easy way to do it, very very many if not most of our enslaved ancestors would have willingly gone back to Africa.  It is afterall.. our ancestral home.

and to add to that.. 


the only reason our ancestors were not returned to Africa was because the loss of skilled labor would have handicapped the countries economy... so instead of releasing our people back to our land, they re-enslaved us.  Trust and believe if there was no use for African people, we would have been wiped-out like the indigenous people of the Americas.


Originally Posted by GoodMan:
Originally Posted by sunnubian:


That's one of the reasons that Liberia never was what it could have been because ex-slaves did return to African and were given X-amount of land by Africans in the region, which would come to be called Liberia, but these ex-slaves came with the wrong and condescending attitudes toward Africans which eventually made such a reunion volatile.  I think those were the same complaints Africans had of returning ex-slaves to the region now called Sierra Leone.  


Of course...


Bougie Black people ruin everything and turn it into some kind of status contest. 


Kinda sad what happened to Liberia.


you might want to take a deeper look at just what Liberia was and how what happened.. actually happened.



If Henry Louis Gates, Jr., had been alive to do a DNA test on Lincoln, he'd have been on the boat back to Africa himself, first in line had it so been ordered.  He was NOT a full-fledged YT.  Everyone that looks white ain't white; everyone that looks black ain't black. President Obama is NOT the first BLACK president.  His BLACK is more noticeable.



Lincoln didn’t believe blacks should have the same rights as whites.

Though Lincoln argued that the founding fathers’ phrase “All men are created equal” applied to blacks and whites alike, this did not mean he thought they should have the same social and political rights.


His views became clear during an 1858 series of debates with his opponent in the Illinois race for U.S. Senate, Stephen Douglas, who had accused him of supporting “negro equality.”


In their fourth debate, at Charleston, Illinois, on September 18, 1858, Lincoln made his position clear.“I will say then that I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political equality of the white and black races,” he began, going on to say that he opposed blacks having the right to vote, to serve on juries, to hold office and to intermarry with whites.


What he did believe was that, like all men, blacks had the right to improve their condition in society and to enjoy the fruits of their labor. In this way they were equal to white men, and for this reason slavery was inherently unjust.


Like his views on emancipation, Lincoln’s position on social and political equality for African-Americans would evolve over the course of his presidency.


In the last speech of his life, delivered on April 11, 1865, he argued for limited black suffrage, saying that any black man who had served the Union during the Civil War should have the right to vote. *snip*

History Of Liberia: A Time Line

1815-1817 | 1820-1847 | 1847-1871 | 1900-1997 

After the struggle for liberty in the American Revolution, free and enslaved African Americans faced continued hardship and inequality. A number of white Americans, for a variety of reasons, joined them in their efforts to resolve this complex problem. One possible solution (advocated at a time when the assimilation of free blacks into American society seemed out of the question) was the complete separation of white and black Americans. Some voices called for the return of African Americans to the land of their forebears.

1815-1817 Black Colonization

1815- African-American Quaker and maritime entrepreneur Paul Cuffee (or Cuffe) financed and captained a successful voyage to Sierra Leone where he helped a small group of African-American immigrants establish themselves. Cuffee believed that African Americans could more easily "rise to be a people" in Africa than in America with its system of slavery and its legislated limits on black freedom. Cuffee also envisioned a black trade network organized by Westernized blacks who would return to Africa to develop its resources while educating its people in the skills they had gained during captivity. Cuffee died in 1817 without fully realizing his dream.


1817- The partial success of Paul Cuffee's African venture encouraged white proponents of colonization to form an organization to repatriate those free African Americans who would volunteer to settle in Africa. Prominent Americans such as Henry Clay, John Randolph of Roanoke, and Justice Bushrod Washington were members of the American Colonization Society (ACS) during its early years. Many free African-Americans, however, including those who had supported Paul Cuffee's efforts, were wary of this new organization. They were concerned that it was dominated by Southerners and slave holders and that it excluded blacks from membership. Most free African-Americans wanted to stay in the land they had helped to build. They planned to continue the struggle for equality and justice in the new nation. See African-American Mosaic: Colonization.


1820-1847 From Colony to Republic


1820- The American Colonization Society sent its first group of immigrants to Sherbro Island in Sierra Leone. The island's swampy, unhealthy conditions resulted in a high death rate among the settlers as well as the society's representatives. The British governor allowed the immigrants to relocate to a safer area temporarily while the ACS worked to save its colonization project from complete disaster. See African-American Mosaic: Personal Stories and ACS New Directions. See African-American Mosaic: 


1821-The American Colonization Society (ACS) dispatched a representative, Dr. Eli Ayres, to purchase land farther north up the coast from Sierra Leone. With the aid of a U.S. naval officer, Lieutenant Robert F. Stockton, Ayres cruised the coastal waters west of Grand Bassa seeking out appropriate lands for the colony. Stockton took charge of the negotiations with leaders of the Dey and Bassa peoples who lived in the area of Cape Mesurado. At first, the local leaders were reluctant to surrender their peoples' land to the strangers, but were forcefully persuaded -- some accounts say at gun-point -- to part with a "36 mile long and 3 mile wide" strip of coastal land for trade goods, supplies, weapons, and rum worth approximately $300. See "The fourth annual report of the American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Color of the United States: with an appendix."


1822 - April 25 - The survivors of Sherbro Island arrived at Cape Mesurado and began to build their settlement. With the wavering consent of the new immigrants, the American Colonization Society governed the colony through its representative. In time, however, some colonists objected strenuously to the authoritarian policies instituted by Jehudi Ashmun, a Methodist missionary who replaced Ayres as the ACS governing representative. Such disagreements created tensions within the struggling settlement.


1824 - Believing that the colonial agent had allocated town lots and rationed provisions unfairly, a few of the settlers armed themselves and forced the society's representative to flee the colony. The disagreements were resolved temporarily when an ACS representative came to investigate the colony's problems and persuaded Ashmun to return. Steps were initiated to spell out a system of local administration and to codify the laws. This resulted, a year later, in the Constitution, Government, and Digest of the Laws of Liberia. In this document, sovereign power continued to rest with the ACS's agent but the colony was to operate under common law. Slavery and participation in the slave trade were forbidden. The settlement that had been called Christopolis was renamed Monrovia after the American president, James Monroe, and the colony as a whole was formally called Liberia.


Christopolis was renamed Monrovia after President James Monroe and the colony was formally called Liberia (the free land). 



Town of Monrovia

1827 - Slave states in North America, increasingly interested in getting rid of their free African-American populations, encouraged the formation of colonization societies. These groups organized themselves independently of the ACS and founded their own colonies in Liberia for transplanting free African-Americans. Some of the "volunteers" were emancipated only if they agreed to emigrate. The Maryland State Colonization Society established its colony in Cape Palmas, Liberia. Virginia and Mississippi also established Liberian colonies for former slaves and free blacks.


See "The tenth annual report (African-American Perspectives) of the American Society for Colonizing the Free People of Colour of the United States: with an appendix." and named after the state. Virginia and Mississippi also founded colonies for former slaves in Liberia. (Liebenow, 17; Nelson, 15).


1838- The colonies established by the Virginia Colonization Society, the Quaker Young Men's Colonization Society of Pennsylvania, and the American Colonization Society merged as the Commonwealth of Liberia and claimed control over all settlements between Cestos River and Cape Mount. The Commonwealth adopted a new constitution and a newly-appointed governor in 1839. See African-American Mosaic: Liberia.


Former Virginian Joseph Jenkins Roberts (America's First Look into the Camera), a trader and successful military commander, was named the first lieutenant governor and became the first African-American governor of the colony after the appointed governor died in office (1841).

1842- The Mississippi settlement at the mouth of the Sinoe River joined the commonwealth. (Nelson, 16; Boley, 20)


1846 - The commonwealth received most of its revenue from custom duties which angered the indigenous traders and British merchants on whom they were levied. The British government advised Liberian authorities that it did not recognize the right of the American Colonization Society, a private organization, to levy these taxes. Britain's refusal to recognize Liberian sovereignty convinced many colonists that independence with full taxing authority was necessary for the survival of the colony and its immigrant population.


In October, Americo-Liberian colonists voted in favor of independence.

Return to top


1847-1871 Nationhood and Survival

1847- On July 26, The Liberian Declaration of Independence was adopted and signed. In it, Liberians charged their mother country, the United States, with injustices that made it necessary for them to leave and make new lives for themselves in Africa. They called upon the international community to recognize the independence and sovereignty of Liberia. Britain was one of the first nations to recognize the new country. The United States did not recognize Liberia until the American Civil War.


1848- The Liberian Constitution was ratified and the first elections were held in the new republic.

First president of the Republic of Liberia 1848-1856. Joseph Jenkins Roberts, three-quarter length portrait, full face.

The Liberian colony's former Governor, Joseph Jenkins Roberts, (America's First Look into the Camera), was elected Liberia's first President.

1851- Liberia College was founded.


See the remarks on the colonization of the western coast of Africa by the free blacks of the United States, and the consequent "civilization" of Africa and suppression of the slave trade.


1854- Maryland Colony declared its independence from the Maryland State Colonization Society but did not become part of the Republic of Liberia. It held the land along the coast between the Grand Cess and San Pedro Rivers.

Wife of Joseph Jenkins Roberts. Jane Roberts three-quarter length portrait of a woman, full face.
Jane Roberts
Wife of Joseph Jenkins Roberts.

See the "African slave trade in Jamaica, and comparative treatment of slaves" (African-American Perspectives).

1856- The independent state of Maryland (Africa) requested military aid from Liberia in a war with the Grebo and Kru peoples who were resisting the Maryland settlers' efforts to control their trade. President Roberts assisted the Marylanders, and a joint military campaign by both groups of African American colonists resulted in victory. In 1857, Maryland became a county of Liberia. The second president of the Republic of Liberia was Stephen Allen Benson,(1856-1864) (America's First Look into the Camera)


Benson, born free in Maryland, U.S.A., had previously served as the vice-president and had a practical knowledge of the republic's local peoples and social institutions. He spoke several indigenous languages. In 1864, he was succeeded by Daniel B. Warner, who served until 1868.


1862- The American president, Abraham Lincoln, extended official recognition to Liberia. See "The relations and duties of free colored men in America to Africa: A Letter to Charles B. Dunbar."


See "The relations and duties of free colored men in America in Africa: A Letter to Charles B. Dunbar" (African-American Perspectives).


1865- 346 immigrants from Barbados joined the small number of African Americans coming to Liberia after the American Civil War. With overseas immigration slowing to a trickle, the Americo-Liberians (as the settlers and their descendents were starting to be called) depended on immigrants from nearby regions of Africa to increase the republic's population. The Americo-Liberians formed an elite and perpetuated a double-tiered social structure in which local African peoples could not achieve full participation in the nation's social, civic, and political life. The Americo-Liberians replicated many of the exclusions and social differentiations that had so limited their own lives in the United States.


See "The absolute equality of all men before the law, the only true basis of reconstruction." An address by William M. Dickson (African-American Perspectives).


1868- A government official, Benjamin Anderson, journeyed into Liberia's interior to sign a treaty with the king of Musardo. He made careful note of the peoples, the customs, and the natural resources of those areas he passed through, writing a published report of his journey. Using the information from Anderson's report, the Liberian government moved to assert limited control over the inland region.


1869- The True Whig Party was founded. In the late nineteenth century, it became the dominant political party in Liberia and maintained its dominance until the 1980 coup. James Skivring


James Skivring

Edward J. Roye (America's First Look into the Camera) succeeded James Spriggs Payne (1868-70) as president for about one year.


1871- A high-interest British bank loan to the Liberian government contributed to a political crisis that led to President Edward J. Roye's removal from office. He was replaced by Vice President James Skivring Smith for the remainder of his term.


From 1871-72, James Skivring Smith (America's First Look into the Camera) was the interim president of Liberia and was followed by two former presidents: Joseph Jenkins Roberts (1872-76) and James Spriggs Paynes (1876-78). Next, Anthony William Gardiner (1878-83) was elected president for three terms. Gardiner resigned during his third term and was replaced by Alfred Francis Russell (1883-84).


1874- Benjamin Anderson made a second journey into inland Liberia.


875- A war broke out among a confederation of Grebo peoples. The Liberian government asked the United States to serve as mediator. In response, a United States emissary visited the G'debo kingdom and the Liberian republic and dispatched a naval ship to assist the Liberian government in settling the conflict.


1883- Liberia could not protect its claim to the Gallinas, a northern coastal area between the Mano and Sewa Rivers, from European colonial encroachment. Economically and militarily weak, Liberia was forced to allow the British to annex the area next to Sierra Leone. President Gardiner resigned over the issue, but in 1885, President Hilary Wright Johnson (1884-1892) formally acquiesced in the annexation.


Hilary Johnson, Elijah Johnson's son, was Liberia's first native-born president.


1888Edward Wilmot Blyden. (America's First Look into the Camera) (1832-1912) published the important study Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race. Blyden was Liberia's leading intellectual, a journalist, scholar, diplomat, statesman, and theologian. Born in St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, he arrived in Liberia in 1850 and was soon deeply involved in its development. From 1855-1856, he edited the Liberia Herald and wrote A Voice From Bleeding Africa. In addition to holding many positions of leadership in politics and diplomacy, he also taught classics at Liberia College (1862-1871) and served as its president (1880-1884). From 1901-06, Blyden directed the education of Muslims in Sierra Leone.


1892- France sent military forces into Liberia to force it to relinquish its claim to lands between the Cavalla River to the northwest and San Pedro River in the southeast.


1900-1997 One Nation, Many Peoples

1903- The British and Liberian governments came to an agreement about the borders between Sierra Leone and Liberia.


1904- The Liberian government instituted an administrative system that brought indigenous peoples into an indirect political relationship with the central government through their own paid officials.


1919- Liberia was one of the nations to sign the League of Nations covenant after World War I.


1929- An International Commission investigated charges of slavery and forced labor in Liberia. A year later, the committee could not substantiate such charges according to international law. They did find, however, that Liberian officials, including the republic's vice president, profited from indigenous people's forced labor.


1944- William V. S. Tubman was elected to the first of seven terms as Liberian president.


1946- The right to vote and participate in elections was extended to Liberia's indigenous peoples.


1958- Liberian representatives attended the first conference of independent African nations.


1967- Liberian officials served on the Organization of African Unity's Consultation Committee on Nigeria's civil war.


1971- President Tubman died in office.


1972- William R. Tolbert, Jr. was elected to Liberia's presidency after finishing Tubman's unexpired term.


1979- On April 14, a rally protesting the increase of rice prices ended in riot.

1980- A military coup led by Samuel K. Doe, a Liberian of non-American descent, assassinated President Tolbert and overthrew the government that had held sway over Liberia since 1847. This ended Liberia's first republic.

1985- Civilian rule was restored.


1986- A new constitution established the second republic of Liberia. Samuel K. Doe, the 1980 coup leader, retained power as head of state.


1989- Charles Taylor, an Americo-Liberian, and his followers toppled the Doe-led government. This action helped precipitate a civil war. Various ethnic factions fought for control of the nation.


1990- Rebel forces executed Liberia's former head of state, Samuel K. Doe, who had overthrown the first republic a decade before.


The West African Peacekeeping force was formed to maintain order in the region.


1995- The 16-member Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) brokered a peace treaty between Liberia's warring factions. An interim State Council established a tentative timetable for elections.


The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) re-negotiated peace.

1997- Charles Taylor was elected president of the third republic of Liberia.


Boley, G.E. Saigbe, Liberia: The Rise and Fall of the First Republic

Cassell, C. Abayomi, Liberia: The History of the First African Republic


Shick, Tom W., Behold the Promised Land: The History of Afro-American 
Settler Society in Nineteenth-Century Liberia.
 Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins 
University Press, 1980
Smith, James Wesley, Sojourners in Search of Freedom: The Settlement of 
Liberia of Black Americans.
 Lanham: University Press of America, 1987.
Staudenraus, P.J., The African Colonization Movement, 1816 - 1865. New York: 
Columbia University Press, 1961; reprint, New York: Octagon Books, 1980.






Did President Lincoln Want to Ship Black People Back to Africa?





In 1864 the Democrats attacked Lincoln as “Abraham Africanus the first”


Lincoln sought to use the vision of colonization…as a way of preparing the racist white American public for universal emancipation-and of offering at least some free blacks an opportunity to escape a racist society. It should be noted that Paul Cuffe, a black sea captain and ship owner, had been an early pioneer in the colonization cause, most free blacks (however) saw the scheme as an insult to their own identity as Americans and to the untold sacrifices of their ancestors, who had played a major part in building America.


Nevertheless, on August 14, 1862, Lincoln became the first president to invite a “Committee of African Americans to the White House, urging them to recruit black volunteers for a government-financed colonization project in Central America. The President told these African Americans that “your race are suffering, in my judgment, the greatest wrong inflicted on any people,” adding that “even when you cease to be slaves, you are yet far removed from being placed on an equality with the white race…”


And so, in his annual message to Congress on December 1, 1862 Lincoln proposed three constitutional amendments, one of which would appropriate federal funds for the colonization outside the United States of blacks who were willing to move. Another proposed amendment provided compensation for any state that agreed to end slavery by the year 1900, and the third immediately guaranteed the freedom of all blacks who had achieved freedom “by the chances of war” (such as escaping behind Union army lines).


Clearly, however one chooses to describe president Lincoln is of course their choice, but what is apparent is that Lincoln understood the deep-rooted malignancy of racism and hate in America. He knew that emancipation at least for the next 100 years would be worst than slavery itself. The following century of American history is replete with lynching, racial segregation, extreme social inequality and black poverty, - all of which came to pass as Lincoln a century earlier had already forecast.


Quoted from David Brian Davis – Inhuman Bondage

"Clearly, however one chooses to describe president Lincoln is of course their choice, but what is apparent is that Lincoln understood the deep-rooted malignancy of racism and hate in America. He knew that emancipation at least for the next 100 years would be worst than slavery itself. The following century of American history is replete with lynching, racial segregation, extreme social inequality and black poverty, - all of which came to pass as Lincoln a century earlier had already forecast."





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