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AND EARLY NORTHERN EUROPE
By RUNOKO RASHIDI


Any comprehensive account of the African presence in early Europe should include England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Scandinavia. The history and legends of Scotland confirm the existence of "purely Black people." We see one of them in the person of Kenneth the Niger. During the tenth century Kenneth the Niger ruled over three provinces in the Scottish Highlands.

The historical and literary traditions of Wales reflect similar beliefs. According to Gwyn Jones (perhaps the world's leading authority on the subject), to the Welsh chroniclers, "The Danes coming in by way of England and the Norwegians by way of Ireland were pretty well all black: Black Gentiles, Black Norsemen, Black Host."

There is also strong reason to suggest an African presence in ancient Ireland. We have, for example, the legends of the mysterious "African sea-rovers, the Fomorians, who had a stronghold on Torrey Island, off the Northwest Coast." The Fomorians, shrouded deep in mist, came to be regarded as the sinister forces in Irish mythology.


-- Stonehenge, "the most famous ancient monument in England," was built by an Afrikan architect named, Marien. Indeed, England's national dance, the "morris-dance" is of Afrikan origin. "It is indisputable that this dance was the invention of the Moor(s)" (Afrikans). It's (Afrikan) origin is further seen in that White (British) dancers blackened their faces to dance it." -- http://www.trinicenter.com/kwame/20010615b.htm




A prominent Viking of the eleventh century was Thorhall, who was aboard the ship that carried the early Vikings to the shores of North America. Thorhall was "the huntsman in summer, and in winter the steward of Eric the Red. He was, it is said, a large man, and strong, black, and like a giant, silent, and foul-mouthed in his speech, and always egged on Eric to the worst; he was a bad Christian."

Another Viking, more notable than Thorhall, was Earl Thorfinn, "the most distinguished of all the earls in the Islands." Thorfinn ruled over nine earldoms in Scotland and Ireland, and died at the age of seventy-five. His widow married the king of Scotland. Thorfinn was described as "one of the largest men in point of stature, and ugly, sharp featured, and somewhat tawny, and the most martial looking man... It has been related that he was the foremost of all his men."

SOURCES:
Ancient And Modern Britons, by David Mac Ritchie
Nature Knows No Color-Line, by J.A. Rogers

Always Remember that: "Anytime We As A People Are Not Having Our WaySomeone Else Is Having Theirs...And It's Never To Our Advantage."

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Original Post
To anyone interested...

Rough Crossings : Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution - $49.95
Simon Schama

"Set against the backdrop of the American Revolution and its aftermath, Rough Crossings is the gripping, astonishing epic of the struggle for freedom by tens of thousands of slaves who believed that their future as free men and women was bound up with staying British, not becoming American.

The decision to offer slaves who defected to the British their liberty began in military strategy, but it unleashed the greatest mass uprising in American history by tens of thousands of slaves - Americans who clung to the sentimental notion of British freedom even when they knew that the English were far from being saints when it came to slavery."
ISBN 0563487097
Some other worthwhile - if depressing - reading is about John Hawkyns, who set sail from England on direct orders from Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth I, during the 1560's bound for the Guinea Coast. His mission: to round up Africans and ship them to the slave markets of Spanish America.

According to Nick Hazelwood, who has a degree in history, John Hawkyns was the queen's personal slave trader, and England's first trafficker in the transatlantic trade.
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I am wakafa One-gay-Guy, The Madman, I was born in south east London England and i am 36 years of age, Zim being my background, like i have said there is no black man in Britain who is above 50 years of age born in UK.

I am begging you not to come here and feed me with all the gabbage, black people started coming to England in the late 50s, history might say something but as of present on this thread i know what i am talking and writing about. The case is closed. And if you have doubts ask any black Britonask any black Briton, period!! we all all know African-Americans have been in the states for over 300 years.

African quote:.
Treasure the love you receive above all. It will survive long after your gold and good health have vanished.
Ignatius Sancho (1729-1780)
(excerpts only)

From African Slave to Composer & Author
Born on a Slave Ship Near Guinea, West Africa

Ignatius Sancho was one of the few Africans in 18th-century England to become a member of the middle class, highly literate and an amateur musician and composer.

Birth
Ignatius Sancho was born in 1729 on a British slave ship near Guinea, West Africa, enroute to the Spanish West Indies. He was orphaned in infancy. Ignatius Sancho: An African Man of Letters is a biography written by Reyahn King, Sukhdev Sandhu, James Walvin and Jane Girdham. It was published by the National Portrait Gallery of Great Britain in 1997.

Marriage
Sancho married Anne Osborne, a West Indian woman of African descent, in 1758. They eventually had six children. The cover portrait of the Sancho biography was done by the renowned British painter Thomas Gainsborough in 1768. Walvin indicates that Sancho had become a man of letters by that time:

By the late 1760s Sancho had made the progression from being a decorative black domestic to a man of refinement and accomplishment, penning letters to friends and sympathisers around the country.

For more detail:
http://chevalierdesaintgeorges.homestead.com/Sancho.html

also:
Resources

African American Review http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2838/is_n1_v31/ai_19569671 - Spring 1997, book review by Keith A. Sandiford of Letters of Ignatius Sancho by Paul Edwards and Polly Rewt.

Blacknet.co.uk http://www.blacknet.co.uk/ - "Ignatius Sancho was the first African prose writer whose work was published in England."

BrycchanCarey.com http://www.brycchancarey.com - A comprehensive introduction to Ignatius Sancho's life and work, including a biograpy, extracts from his writing, images, links, music, and bibliography by Brycchan Carey of the University of London.

Center for Black Music Research http://www.cbmr.org/pubs/sancho.htm - International Dictionary of Black Composers: Ignatius Sancho.

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