"Orthodox" Christianity and the birth of
February 09, 2002
by Corey Gilkes
<big>"By the time the fool has learnt the rules of the game, the players have all gone home"</big>. - African Proverb
For many of those who have studied slavery and colonialism it is well known that of all the institutions developed or exploited by European powers, religion was the most debilitating. The destruction of indigenous peoples' image of the Almighty did more to make them submissive to the will of the colonial powers than force of arms ever could. In the last two essays I attempted to throw light upon an aspect of Xianity that is almost completely overlooked by most devotees of the religion; the more esoteric meanings behind what is written in the scriptures. But there is still one other aspect of Xianity that needs to be looked at; an aspect which I believe is at the heart of Western European hegemony. That is the actual way in which the Christian religion has been used by the European to seize and maintain control societies and people.
The answer to the question of what effect Christianity had upon ancient and Medieval Europe is by no means as straightforward as it is made out to be by fundamentalists and apologists. Indeed the very question may be said to stem from a misconception that the influence was one-way - Europe, particularly ancient Europe being profoundly influenced by the tenets outlined in the bible [New Testament], the words first spoken to mortal man by Jesus of Nazareth. The truth is that the relationship enjoyed between Europe and Christianity [hereinafter referred to as orthodox or Western Christianity to distinguish it from the other forms of Christian and pre-Christian faiths that existed around the same time as the early Roman Church] can be summed up in one word, symbiosis. And even this was possible only after extensive "doctoring", editing and suppression of texts to suit the political needs of first the Roman Empire and later France, England, Spain, Portugal, etc. namely expansionism. The history of Christianity is the political history of Europe.With regard to the influence that Christianity has had upon ancient and medieval Europe [and ultimately the Americas] it is quite fair to say that the Church has left a legacy, a worldview that permeates every aspect of Western European-centred societies. Today, even though most Western societies can boast of a separation between Church and state, their very laws and cultural traits have been shaped in no small way by early ecclesiastical authorities. Actually, what the Church has done was to harmonise these cultural traits that have characterised European societies since primordial times.
We the "people of colour" have an amazing naivete with regard to religion particularly Christianity as defined by Western Europe. Most are familiar with the Christianity of faith. What is not so well known is its origin, the Christianity of history and how it impacted upon the faith; indeed there are many misconceptions about the faith and most people confuse the historic Christianity with the Christianity of faith. Many of the adherents who follow the faith for the sake of the "purest" aspects of the religion, believe, in their innocence that others do likewise. As such they staunchly defend a religion the origins and development of which they remain blissfully unaware. So much time is wasted arguing about which denomination is better or whether Creation or Evolution is true, or whether the Bible is the infallible Word of God. Little time is spared for carefully contemplating the extent to which religion has been used as a tool for exploitation and the lengths those who seek political and economic power would go and have already gone in the pursuit of such power. Indeed, due to our misreading of the bible and our love affair with Judaism and things Christian, very few even bother to challenge the implied right of Europeans to rule, so deeply have we internalised feelings of inferiority.
In examining the impact of Christianity upon ancient and Medieval Europe one thing is certain; the Church succeeded in uniting most of Europe. There is no doubt, as the fundamentalists argue, that Christianity has unified Western Europe in ways that transcended the narrow confines of tribalism. That it sought to include everyone through its message of a universal brotherhood. That it harnessed the warring tribes of Europe and in so doing unified the political, economic and social outlook of Western Europe by harnessing the various aspects of the continent's secular culture. However, there is another side to this story; one that is by no means as romanticised as it is often made out to be. Exactly how the Christian Church went about unifying and transforming Europe, if one looks at it honestly, is shameful to say the least. Christianity, as defined by Rome, Greece and to some extent Asia Minor, brought religious intolerance to a level never before seen. It provided justification for the taking of other people's lands by cleverly disguising ethnocentrism and an expansionist ideology in a message of universal brotherhood. Ironically it used this universal brotherhood message to maintain a hierarchical structure that saw Europe and European-centred societies at the pinnacle while the conquered lands and peoples occupied the lower rungs. It introduced chattel slavery and rape in places where such things did not exist before, wanton destruction and contempt for the environment notwithstanding its exhortations to the contrary. It reinvigorated old gender prejudices and superstitions thereby transforming Europe and Western influenced societies into neurotic, male-dominant, sexually repressed societies. In its rise to ascendancy orthodox Christian bishops forged biblical texts - such as the passages following Mark Chap16: 8 - in order to create the myth of an historical death and resurrection. It is this myth of an historical, fleshly death and resurrection of Jesus and his "appointment" of his disciple Peter that lies at the foundation of European expansionist ideologies and their perception of a divine right, a manifest destiny.
This, along with the "succession" initiated by Peter's "appointment", carried immense political weight and served as the basis for the Church's involvement in and manipulation of the political affairs of Europe. Popes crowned earthly monarch yet accounted to none; in fact the European concept of the divine right of kings, though pre-dating Christianity, was reinforced to a large extent by the Church's arrogating unto itself the power to create monarchs. Ecclesiastical law was held superior to secular law and in many cases served as the basis for these laws.
To understand this symbiotic relationship and how Europe has become what it has become, one must first understand the first three centuries of the Christian era. Most people have been encouraged to believe that Christianity sprang up as a fully developed New Order ordained by Jesus the Christ, Son of God, in the midst of a world wracked by sin. Some of them further believe that the religion has changed little from its beginnings some 2000 years ago. This romanticised view has little foundation in historical fact. The Gospels are by no means cohesive, eyewitness accounts; they are in fact extremely unreliable as historical documents. They are devoid of the historical detail that makes, for instance, Josephus' works so valuable. They give little or no indication of the turbulent political climate in Palestine and Rome at that time, the daily cruelties that resulted in thousands of crucifixions and not just one. The Book of Acts fares no better either and apart from the Letters of Paul [those that are not forgeries] it is almost impossible to extricate historical fact from romantic myth.
Now there are some religious systems that are largely the same way today as when they were conceived - specific schools of Buddhism and Islam, for example. However, the concepts, doctrines, myths and rituals of Christianity did not develop in one singular spontaneous upsurge. In fact, for the first two hundred odd years of the Christian era [CE], there were numerous "Christian" denominations, each with their own spiritual beliefs and Gospels, and each at war with the other groups over the question of these doctrines and their authenticity. For example, during these first three centuries certain Mandaean and Johannite sects, especially in the region of the Tigris-Euphrates basin, honoured John, and not Jesus as the messiah. Indeed, one of these sects still exists. For them, John was the "true prophet", while Jesus was "a rebel, a heretic, who led men astray, betrayed secret doctrines". To further compound the issue, the Romans destroyed the Temple of Jerusalem in 70 CE in retaliation for attacks by Jewish nationalists. This meant that many important documents and sacred Jewish writings were either destroyed or disappeared. The major difference we find between contemporary denominations and those of the first two centuries is that today's denominations, whether Baptist, Pentecostal, Presbyterians, Catholic, Seventh Day Adventists, etc, all regard the New Testament as authoritative. All of the faiths that arose out of the Reformation remained within the framework of orthodoxy.
Contrary to another popular myth, the first Christian Church was not established in Rome or anywhere in Europe. The first Christian nation was in Ethiopia [Cush]; this is "confirmed" in the book of Acts 8: 26-40. Those who insist that the early Church was founded in Rome [or Armenia] often dispute this. The argument against an Ethiopian beginning is often augmented by the fact that most religious scholars and theologians agree that neither Acts nor the Gospels can be relied upon for historical accuracy, having been written over sixty years after the events they describe supposedly took place.
However, the facts show that prior to Constantine's ascension to the throne in 312 CE, Christianity was not openly practiced in Rome. The Roman Christians were being persecuted because of their repeated attempts to subvert the social order [and NOT because of their religious beliefs as is so often said] and were forced to worship secretly in the catacombs [underground cemeteries] found under many ancient Roman cities.
But the Church was already flourishing in northeast Africa. Apart from Ethiopia, a Christian monastery was established in Kemet/Egypt in the 1st century CE by an African bishop named Pantaenus on the island of Phillae on the Nile. This monastery had seven Patriarchs, the equivalent of popes, and twenty-seven bishops.
Even monasticism originated in Egypt; another African, Anthony, called "the hermit of the Sahara", because he withdrew to that area to meditate in a life of poverty, became the first of the order of monks and nuns who lived the monastic life of seclusion. Note, however, that Anthony himself was only carrying on a tradition practiced by the priests and priestesses of the ancient Kemitic/Egyptian educational and spiritual system called the Mystery System. This was a highly complex, secret spiritual and philosophical order stretching back well over 4500 years BCE
The capital of Christendom up until Constantine's time was Alexandria, Egypt. Its bishops were instrumental in creating the organisational structure of the Church. Egypt and Ethiopia were securely Christian before Greece or Rome. Even later on such Africans as Augustine of Numidia, Cyprian, bishop of Carthage and Tertullian also of Carthage heavily influenced Christianity. There was also Bishop Origen and at least three Africans who became popes of Rome; St. Victor I [189-199] who is responsible for Easter being celebrated on a Sunday; St. Galasius I [492-496] and St. Miltiades [311-314].
However, it was Constantine who paved the way for Roman Christian domination. Scholars believe that his reign represented the turning point in Europe's history. One can say then that the starting point of this European manufactured myth begins with this historical figure. According to the general outline of the popular story Constantine became emperor after defeating his main rival Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge. He was said to have been inspired by a vision in the sky - later reinforced by a prophetic dream - of a luminous cross and an inscription which read "In Hoc Signo Vinces" [by this sign, conquer]. He then had emblazoned upon the shields of his soldiers, the Greek letters chi and rho, the first two letters of the word "Christos" and this resulted in his victory in battle and over paganism. Upon his ascension to the throne, he forbade all persecution of Christians, became a Christian and adopted Christianity as the state religion of Rome. Later, by virtue of a document that was "uncovered" in the 8th century, he was believed to have conferred upon the Pope some of his own secular power. The document was called the "Donation of Constantine".
That's pretty much the legend, and of course, the truth tells us a much different tale. Constantine did defeat Maxentius at Milvian Bridge, he did ascend the throne in the year 312 and during his reign Christian persecution was halted - sort of. But he had no mystical vision at all: the chi rho monogram can be traced back to Ancient Egypt via such "pagan" cultures as Pompeii centuries before the Xian Era. Further, his Edict of Milan of 313 forbade persecution of all forms of monotheism including Christianity - in other words his law was not drafted specifically for Christian benefit. Also, Constantine was neither converted to Xianity nor did he adopt Xianity as the state religion of Rome during his reign. Sol Invictus, a form of sun veneration, was the predominant religion in Rome and Constantine himself functioned as a Sol Invictus high priest, and he was never "converted" to Xianity until he lay upon his deathbed [and it appears that that happened because he was too feeble to protest]. As for the "Donation" in which he purportedly gave to Pope Sylvester, " …the city of Rome and all the provinces, districts, and cities of Italy and the Western regions….", and by which the Church asserted its prerogative to crown kings and assume temporal authority, this was nothing but a forgery. Ironically, the Church refused to relinquish all land and treasures acquired through this deception.
He halted the persecution of Christians - for strategic and political reasons only; this had nothing to do with seeing any "divine light", he needed support in order to consolidate his position on the throne. He allowed high Church dignitaries to become part of the civil administration. He donated the Lateran Palace to the bishop of Rome, which was then used as a means of establishing supremacy over rival centres of Christian authority in Alexandria and Antioch. In fact, much of what came to define Orthodox/Western Christianity was shaped by Bishop Eusebius who was Constantine's personal confidant. He presided over the Council of Nicea [325 CE]. At this council, the various warring Christian factions were forced to confront each other and attempt to reconcile their differences. Again, this was done out of political expediency; Constantine was seeking political and ecclesiastical unity so that Rome would be easier to manage; the many religions flourishing in Rome were too tribal and/or ethnic in their outlook to facilitate his expansionist aspirations. Christianity, with some doctoring, fit the bill. Indeed, Christianity as we know it today was to a great extent shaped in this ecumenical council. Jesus' divinity and the nature of his divinity were decided by a vote at this council. At Nicea Eusebius and other like-minded bishops vigorously implemented the reorganisation programme, selectively collecting documents and credos that suited their fancy and imposed them upon the Christian world. After this council any deviation from their "orthodoxy" was not viewed as a mere difference of opinion or misinterpretation, but an outright heresy. It was also at this council that Rome became, or more correctly, usurped, the official centre of Christian orthodoxy. The atmosphere of religious tolerance and diversity that typified Rome and its dominions was slowly being eroded because Christian authorities understood that such diversity posed a challenge to their political aspirations. One of the first "casualties" was the Nazarean form of teachings espoused by the Jesus figure and his disciples, which was not to become a new religion but was to adhere to Judaic Law. This was supplanted with Pauline thought. Thus, in the cruellest of ironies, the faiths that were much closer to the truth were now spurned as heretical and the denomination whose origins are nothing short of scandalous became - and remains - the "orthodoxy".
Note: as previously mentioned, up until Constantine's death in 334 Christianity was NOT the official state religion of Rome; Sol Invictus, which originated in Syria, was. Constantine himself functioned as a Sol Invictus chief priest and though he tolerated Christianity, he was not baptised until he was on his deathbed. But Roman Christian doctrine was similar to Sol Invictus anyway, as well as the Egyptian Osirian Drama and Mithraism, a survival of the ancient Persian Zoroastrian religion, which was also imported by Rome. By adopting the traditions of these belief systems, it became much easier to win over "pagan" devotees and Roman Christianity became increasingly secure politically and ecclesiastically in the Roman Empire, which by this time was virtually a "superpower". Also, by adopting these traditions Western Christianity gradually moved away from it's Judaic origins. Indeed, to ensure its survival and that it would remain in Rome's good graces "Orthodox" Xian writers set about changing and creating scriptural texts that shifted blame from the Romans to the Jews for the destruction of their Temple, their colonisation and the death of their messianic figure [contrary to popular belief the Jews lost everything not because they opposed the messiah or the concept of a messiah, but because they were so uncompromisingly messianic]. To this end we have the absurd passage [Matt 27:25] of a whole Jewish crowd saying to Pilate "[let] his blood be on us and our children"; something no crowd of Jews ever did. Further, the whole image we have of Jesus being condemned to death for his claims to being the messiah must be read in this context. Historically, crucifixion was a capital punishment reserved by the Romans for crimes against the state - i.e. treason - the Jews did not have the authority to crucify anyone and if the crimes were of a religious nature, the Jesus figure would certainly have been put to death for blasphemy by the Jews themselves - by stoning - with no need for the Romans.
The Council of Sardica [343-344C.E.] declared that "Rome is the see [unit] of Peter, to which all bishops must refer". This effective step toward centralisation was important not for granting a new right on Rome, but for reserving this right for Rome alone. In the 4th century the Eastern Orthodox bishops who had split with the West, consulted Rome only on very important matters. Alexandria, which had been the most ecumenical and tolerant city in the whole of the Roman Empire, became a haven for Jews. It also became a haven for Nazarean thought; it is said that Nazarean teachings greatly influenced the development of Egyptian Christianity - after all, it was in Egypt, Nag Hammadi, to be exact, where the Gospel of Thomas and other Gnostic Thomasine or Nazarean scrolls were found. Even so esteemed a Church Father as Clement of Alexandria was, in many respects, closer to Nazarean doctrine than he was to the Pauline orthodoxy of Rome. Egypt also served as repositories for the so-called "heresies" such as the Arian "heresy", which was one of the main issues of the Nicene Conference.
Nevertheless, by the 5th century Rome was further strengthening its position as the Universal [catholic] Church. Popes maintained that all Christians and not only bishops had the right to appeal to the bishop of Rome. Needless to say, this was stoutly resisted by the Churches of Egypt, Ethiopia, Syria, Ireland and many other aforementioned sects, a schism that in some cases was to last up until the present.
With the fall of the Roman Empire and the rise of Christian Europe the continent began to slip into the Dark Ages in which all learning not approved by the Church was anathematised and suppressed. Books and libraries were closed, converted or burnt to the ground. In Alexandria, Egypt, African books containing centuries of knowledge on medicine, geography, navigation, astronomy, sacred science, etc were destroyed in orgies of violence. In other parts of Christian dominated Europe ancient academies were closed and such subjects as grammar, Latin and advanced mathematics were banned. Bathing and personal cleanliness were considered sinful and all forms of sensual pleasure were forbidden and regarded with what can only be described as maniacal fear. This was partly because such things were closely connected to ancient beliefs venerating the concept of the Divine Mother in addition to the accompanying male deity. The Church Fathers condemned marriages and it was considered sinful and the Church refused to participate in any until the 9th century. Sex was deemed sinful, nasty and even when it was finally tolerated [for the purpose of the producing a male child] there were strict regulations controlling when a married couple could engage in intercourse. Clement of Alexandria, influenced to some extent by Levite Judaism, disapproved of oral intercourse, intercourse with a pregnant, menstruating, menopausal or barren wife, in the morning, in the daytime and after dinner. The act itself was not to be enjoyed by either party or else it would be deemed lustful [The word "lust" in old Germanic language actually meant "religious joy"]. The effects of this kind of schizophrenia was so profound that tables in the late 19th century Victorian England had their legs covered lest it aroused a man's passionate feelings.
"Pagan" beliefs, particularly those of Persia, India and Egypt, which was the main rival, was on the one hand outlawed but on the other hand co-opted into Christian worship. African and Persian myths and festivals commemorating the change in the seasons or the growth of crops were spliced into Christianity since the very dawn of its existence. By the fall of the Roman Empire temples dedicated to the African Divine Mother Auset/Isis were converted to Christian temples along with the worship of the Madonna and Child. All this made it easier to convert pagan devotees into Christians. Since the Church was now controlling all books and centres of learning, history was rewritten to become a verification of Christian beliefs. In Europe time reckoning was hinged upon the supposed date of Jesus' birth.
As the Church's influence and authority increased so did their corruption. Murder, bribery, fornication, simony, pedophilia, forgery, larceny and the like became all but institutionalised by the Vatican. The Church along with some rich influential Jews in the royal courts who had "converted" to Christianity [conversos or Marranos], in a macabre business deal with the Arabs acquired spices and other exotic items from Asia Minor in exchange for humans and furs [in that order]. These humans were the "pagan" Slavic people of Central and Eastern Europe and it was from the exploitation of these people that we have the word "slave". Life for common Xian people of Europe was no easier as the Church and European monarchs exploited and enslaved their people [it's euphemistically called serfdom] through physical, financial and sexual exploitation. By the end of the 9th century the popularity and authority of the Church was being questioned. Things may not have gone well for the Church were it not for a very timely distraction that also made the expansionist ideology enter a new phase, the Crusades. This series of "holy" military campaigns spanned a period from 1095 to 1291 ended in humiliation for the Church but it did in its own way open European eyes to the world to the south. It also helped undermine the status of the Church and the lords in the eyes of the common people. By the end of the traumatic Black Death plague which swept Europe and wiped out over one-third of its population Europe had for the most part lost sentimental attachment with itself and the Church looking for a new avenue to vent pent up frustrations.
It found it in the Jews and especially the Moorish population: the African and Arab Muslims who invaded and settled in Europe especially Spain, Portugal and parts of France. These same African and Arab Muslims whose relatives had soundly defeated the Crusaders had preserved centuries of ancient knowledge and taught these subjects in Europe. Were it not for the Moors, Europe may never have recovered such knowledge. By the 1400's, weakened by infighting Islamic Europe was beginning to lose control. At the same time Christian Europe was beginning to rediscover itself and was slowly coming together to fight the "infidel". Augmented by the libraries and documents assembled by Prince Henry the so-called Navigator [there's no evidence that he actually was a sailor], Christian Europe began to recover some semblance of higher learning. Maps and charts, redrawn from ancient African and Arab source maps as well as from information provided by Jewish gold dealers who had been trading with states in the Sudan and inner West Africa, Europeans began going back to sea. By 1483, the last Moorish stronghold capitulated to the forces of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, paving the way for the Columbus expedition - itself a myth that should be addressed [see the letter on Columbus ]
Scholars argue that the Church's stranglehold really became loosened with the advent of the printing press and the rise of Protestantism. However, while this did indeed erode the authority of the Roman church, it must be remembered that the Reformers were not seeking to start a new religion. They were simply trying to curb the excesses and corruption of the Church and, finding it impossible to do so, branched out on their own. For many of them their outlook still remained Catholic and others, such as Calvin, were trying to create a society that lived in strict accordance to the tenets of the bible - the assumption here was that Christianity was a "book" religion, failing to consider that Christianity was also defined by extra-biblical traditions. Scholars such as Max Weber, argue that this was intimately connected with the rise of capitalism. John Calvin's ascetic Protestantism taught that there was a specific number already chosen by God to live in heaven. These persons were chosen even before they were born; and those who were not fortunate enough just could not get a place no matter how well behaved they were on earth. For him, humans were inherently sinful, depraved by original and actual sin. He stressed discipline - which he enforced to the point of despotism, unconditional obedience to God's will and ethical deeds. Unlike Luther who preached justification by faith and forgiveness of sins, Calvin's aim was not salvation; it was to glorify God. His philosophies influenced the expansionist ideologies of Europe in no small way. His views and methods of enforcing discipline also inspired the French Huguenots, the Scottish Presbyterians, the English Puritans, the Baptists and such individuals as John Knox and Theodore Beza.
The Europe that came out of the Dark and Middle Ages was a Europe that was deficient in land, people and especially resources. It solved the land and people problem by taking other people's land and enslaving and/or exterminating them. The Protestant ethic spurred European powers to create and maintain a system of slavery and colonisation that would ensure that the economies of Europe [and later the United States] would be fuelled by the enforced labour of enslaved and colonised peoples. To ease their consciences for their orgies of extermination and enslavement, they, with great assistance from the Church - Catholic and Protestant, created a rationale that convinced them that they were dealing with "uncivilised" people who were "savages, steeped in idolatry, who sacrifice human beings, eat human flesh and deal with the devil". An examination of the diaries and other historical documents written by European missionaries, merchants and soldiers show that this pretext was used time and again in the Americas, Africa and Asia.
It is an argument that is still used today except that "civilisation" and "Christianity" have been switched to "democracy", "free trade", "Globalisation", etc.
This is not meant to be an indictment of many individuals who are genuine in their beliefs. However, they in their innocence remain unaware of the circumstances surrounding the origin and development of their faith and the role it played in the enslavement and colonising of peoples, the shaping of an ideology that was the foundation for Western racism. It employed physical and psychological violence to validate the faith. By scrutinising the hidden history of Western Christianity and the pre-Judaic/Christian world, one could have a better understanding of what must be done to reverse the effects of this strange disease.
The Catholic Encyclopedia
The Encyclopedia Biblica
Tertullianus Against Marcion - Tertullian
History of Christianity
World's Crucified Saviors - Rev C H Vail
Afrikan Origins of the Major World Religions - Prof. Yosef ben-Jochannan
Irenaeus Against Heresies - Irenaeus
African Origins of the Major "Western" Religions - Prof. Yosef ben-Jochannan
Holy Blood Holy Grail - Henry Lincoln, Michael Baigent
Messianic Legacy - Henry Lincoln, Michael Baigent
Echoes of the Old Darkland - Charles S. Finch MD
History of the First Council of Nice
Introduction to African Civilisations - John Jackson
Pagan Origins of the Christ Myth - John Jackson
Man, God and Civilisations - John Jackson
African Presence in Early Europe - edited by Dr. Ivan Van Sertima
Black Athena Vol. I - Martin Bernal
Ancient Egypt the Light of the World [2Vols.] - Gerald Massey
Gerald Massey's Lectures - Gerald Massey
Dead Sea Scrolls Deception - Henry Lincoln
Who Is This King of Glory? A Critical Study of the Christus/Messiah
Tradition -- Alvin Boyd Kuhn
The Dictionary of Bible and Religion - editor William Gentz
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Vol. I - Edward Gibbon
Forgery in Christianity - Joseph Wheless
The Women's Encyclopedia of Myth and Secrets - Barbara G. Walker
The Dark Side of Christian History - Helen Ellerbie
Women, Food and Sex in History -Soledad de Montalvo [4 vols.]
The Passover Plot - Hugh Schonfield
The Confessions of Augustine s- St Augustine
The Holy City of God - St Augustine
James; the Brother of Jesus - Robert Eisenman
Crimes of the Popes - G W Foote & J Wheeler
The World Christopher Columbus did not Discover - videotaped lecture by Dr John Henrik Clarke
The Gnostic Gospels - Elaine Pagels
Personal interviews with the late elder Clemey George
The Columbus Conspiracy
Capitalism and Slavery - Eric Williams
Documents of West Indian history - Eric Williams
The Secret Relationship between Blacks and Jews - edited by the Nation of Islam
The Grandees - Stephen Birmingham
African presence in Early Asia - Runoku Rashidi
Critical Lessons in Slavery and the Slave Trade - John Henrik Clarke [ed.]
The Log of Christopher Columbus - translated by Robert Fuson
The Destruction of Black Civilisation : Great Issues of a Race from 4500 BC to 2000 AD - Chancellor Williams