BEYOND THE VEIL OF HISTORY
[i]To the Initiate on the path of Truth: The veil cannot be lifted unless you approach with clean hands and a pure, contrite heart. "And behold the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom..." Matthew. 27:51.[i]
The present is just an instant, but the past is a vast eternity, much more so than most of us closeted mortals believe, or would like to believe. The spirit of truth is most potent upon the Earth, and the wax of ignorance that impedes our vision of history melts away with the heat of historical reality. All we are actively conscious of presently, can be said to be already in the past and therefore part of history.
That a child learns that it is unwise to touch a boiling kettle by the excruciating pain received by the initial or subsequent experience is exemplified, multiplied and amplified by the experiences of life's struggles. The experiences gradually become more subtle and complex, hence our illusions and arrogance, until the pain of the experience transcends the pleasure to be derived.
Indeed, like the child mentioned above, we learn from our past, from our experience. Experience is a phenomenal teacher; the true source of education. Wise action may be said therefore to be based on the nuggets of truth that have been granted to us by our struggles and experiences in life.
Each experience in our lives may seem distinct and complete in itself, but each experience should be seen as a cohesive continuity, as a link in a chain. And like a chain it is important that the connection and continuity of the links be maintained. That we are aware of it or not, the chain of events and hence the experiences of life are all linked by the underlying esoteric law of 'cause and effect'. It is therefore important for man to be consciously aware of and learn from his past experiences or history, that is, if he is to make the most of his present and future experiences and realize his full potential.
History has been referred to as the memory of human group experience. To the extent that it is forgotten, ignored or hidden, for whatever reason, we lose some of our humanity and culture. Without history, we have no knowledge of who we are or how we came to be. We become like people who have lost their memory, blindly groping in the dark to find their identity.
History is a source of great power generated by the inspired, past aspirations and accomplishments of our forefathers who struggled to realize peace, happiness and success on Earth.
History is a gift to all of us who are yearning to find self, yearning to know self, and for all searching for self-identity and self-realisation; all genuine soul-searchers and Initiates on the Path of Truth need to know their history. It has been said that a people's realisation of God can be equated to the evolvement and deification of their culture. History allows those of us, who take cognizance of it, to see right and wrong, wisdom and error in retrospect; it gives us the necessary understanding for us to desire to improve ourselves so as to realize the fullness of God's grace, which (ultimately) is divinity.
History is the record of experience and a people must know their history if they are to begin to understand themselves and the world of which they are humble inhabitants. Also by knowing our history we may live within the protective shield of hard-earned experience and wisdom.
From the book: "Destruction of Black Civilisation" by Chancellor Williams, an extract of a Sumer legend reads as follows: "What became of the black people of Sumer? the traveller asked the old man. "For ancient records show that the people of Sumer were black. What happened to them?" "Ah!" the old man sighed "they lost their history, so they died".
The Materialisation of the Heavens and the Earth
In our search therefore, beyond the veil of history, we start at the very beginning when God, exercising His attributes of Will, Wisdom and Activity, created the Heavens and the Earth. The Earth was without form and void.1
God who is Alpha and Omega, Supreme and Divine, the Omniscient Force and Emanator of all forces put forth his consciousness and vibrational potentiality into the vast essence of His Being and by the modality of the logos, the vibration of the word created as the heat of fire, the moisture of water and the seed of all existence the firmament in the midst of the waters. Hence, perceivers of truth, the spoken word is but a vibration; all being is vibratory and the whole world of form is but spirit-substance in vibration at certain established rates; the slower the vibration, the more crystallized the manifestation. This esoteric understanding of life, which is of paramount importance to the Initiate on the Path of Truth, has been thoroughly dealt with in Chapter 2.
So we read: "In the beginning was the word and the word was with God and the word was God"2 "And God made the firmament and separated the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament. And God called the firmament above heaven and God let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place and let the dry land appear. God called the dry land Earth and the waters that were gathered together he called the seas. And God saw that it was good."3
The Garden of Eden
It should be noted that in a practical sense, in those remote days of antiquity, the whole earth was one plot of land, the plantation of God; because the ocean had not yet separated the land mass into the continents as we know them presently.4 The continents of America (North and South), Europe and Africa were all fitted together in conjunction with a huge landmass referred to by the ancients as the land of Mu.
The land of Mu was later named by scientists the land of Lemuria. Initially, the land of Lemuria occupied a large portion of today's Pacific Ocean and lapped over into Asia and Africa.5
A portion of this landmass, which was one with North-East Africa, was the only habitable land sufficiently above water to have any considerable degree of vegetation. Hence, we learn that The Absolute Omniscient Light, Creator of the Universe, created a resplendent garden called Eden; a heavenly park of luxuriant green and gushing streams reminiscent of the beautiful Caribbean island, Dominica, but far more beautiful and breath-takingly vast in comparison. In all its pristine virgin purity, Mother Nature, whom we must love and harmonize with, was then manifest in one harmony with the spirit of the Heavenly Father.
Thus in the Holy Bible, we read: "And a river went out of Eden to water the Garden; and from thence it was parted and became into four heads. The name of the first is Pishon: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold........ And the name of the second river is Gishon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. And the name of the third river is Tigris, that is, it which goeth towards the east of Assyria and the fourth river is Euphrates."6 It should be noted that Genesis 10:7 tells us quite clearly that "Havilah" was a son of Kush (also spelt Cush); and the ancient people of Kush or Kushites have always been the African people of North East Africa. Incidentally the land of Kush was subsequently referred to by the Greeks as "Aethiops" and later "Aethiopia"or"Ethiopia".7 Hence, the Bible clearly reflects that the first two rivers of the Garden of Eden began in the heart of North-East Africa8 and extended to the boundaries of "the fertile crescent" where the two other ancient rivers flowed. The fertile crescent area later became known as Mesopotamia. 9
In keeping with the above, we read in the book "Egypt, Light of the World", a translation from the Egyptian scriptures by Gerald Massey: "The Egyptian record when read, will tell us plainly that the human birthplace was a land of the Papyrus reed at the horn of the Earth, that is the Equator, from whence the sacred river ran, the Valley of the Nile, with plenty. The Gulf of Aden at the East coast of Africa is also a traditional name somewhat similar to Eden the name of Adam's Garden." To this may be added the entire area that is (in recent history) referred to as the Middle East,10 which traditionally was considered part of North-East Africa.
Dr. A. Herman, a German scientist is quoted by Colonel A. Brighane in his volume: "The Shadow of Atlantis" page 206 as having come to the conclusion that river Gishon was nothing else than the Nile and that the site of Eden should be sought in Abyssinia, Ethiopia or Aethiopia.
In the book "African Origin of Civilization", by Cheikh Anta Diop we read at page 266 "that the most distinguished pre-historians and anthropologists nowadays -Abbe Breuil, Professor Arambourg, Dr. Leakey" and others "consider Africa the cradle of humanity."
Original Man: First Adam
Having produced immutable Natural Laws, the Heavens and the Earth and the Garden of Eden, the Lord God, Father of the Universe, created man. "God created man in His own image, in the image of God created he him, male and female created he them."11 As Biblical history relates, the first man Adam and woman Eve were created out of the elements of our Earthly Mother and the cohesive spirit of the Heavenly Father. The Eternal Spirit of the Heavenly Father coupled with the internal elements of the Earthly Mother, and brought forth living breathing beings. "And the Lord God formed Man of the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul."12 "And the Lord God took the man and put him into the Garden of Eden to dress and keep it."13
Dr. Churchward, a famous English anthropologist agrees with Gerald Massey's findings referred to earlier, as to the origin of the first race of man when he writes : "From studies I have made during many years, I am fully convinced that ...... the human race did not originate in .... any other part of the World but in Africa.
Over the years the flame of truth has been further enhanced by the findings of the son of an English missionary, Professor Louis Leakey. This world-renowned archeologist endorsed that Africa is the Cradle of Mankind. Professor Leakey "and Dr. Donald Johnson of Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland and Curator of Physical Anthropology at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, held an electrifying press conference at the National Geographic Society to disclose the discoveries of 3 million year old human hands and a million-and-a -half year old human skull in the fossil rich sediments of Eastern Africa".14
In "Fossil Men" by Marcellin Boule and Henri Vallois, translated into English by Michael Bullock, archeological findings were compared, considered and aptly summarised, when we read: "On the strength of evidence, we must recognise in all objectivity, that the first Homo Sapiens were "Negroid" and that the other races, white and yellow, appeared later..... the human remains found up to now in East Africa, do not differ from the present inhabitants of that country or neighboring countries."15 Today's Masai is considered as one of the most authentic representative types. 16
It is noteworthy that in 1988 scientists of another discipline, namely geneticists, claim to have found humanity's common ancestor - a woman who lived thousands of years ago and left resilient genes that are carried by all humanity.
"The scientists' Eve -.....was likely a dark-haired, black skinned woman." She was very fruitful, "if that is measured by success in propagating a certain set of genes. Hers seems to be in all humans living today: 5 billion blood relatives . " 17
"Versions of the Adam and Eve story ........have been told in cultures from the Mediterranean to the Pacific to the Americas;" all the stories are based on the same assumption as the scientists: "that at some point we all share an ancestor .......... possibly one from the time when modern humans arose."18
These new breed anthropologists trained in molecular biology, "looked at an assortment of genes and picked up a trail of DNA that led them to a single woman from whom we are all descended. Most evidence so far indicates that Eve lived in Sub-Saharan Africa."19..... "The evolution from archaic to modern homo sapiens seems to have occurred in only one place, Eve's family." As time elapsed, "a group of her progeny left their homeland endowed apparently with some special advantage over every tribe of early humans they encountered. As they fanned out, Eve's descendants replaced the locals, eventually settling the entire world." 20
Some archeologists referred to by some as "stones and bones" anthropologists accept this interpretation of the genetic evidence. However, others think, although they agree that the first homo sapiens were born in Africa, that our common ancestors lived much "further in the past at least a million years ago, because that was when humans first left Africa and began spreading out over the world, presumably evolving separately into the modern races." 21
Stephen Gould - Harvard paleontologist and essayist is quoted in the Newsweek article - The Search for Adam & Eve, as follows: This "makes us realize that all human beings, despite differences in external appearance, are really members of a single entity............There is a kind of biological brotherhood that's much more profound than we ever realized."22
This brotherhood of scientists is confident that the "DNA Tree began in Africa (Eden), and then at some point a group of Africans (People of Eden) emigrated, splitting off to form a second branch of DNA and carrying it to the rest of the world."23 It should be noted that in harmony with W.S Cerve in his book Lemuria, which is referred to later,24 it is stated in the Newsweek article aforementioned that "skin colouring for instance, is a minor adaptation to climate ......It takes only a few thousand years of evolution for skin colour to change." 25
In the book, "Redemption of Africa and Black Religion", by Saint Claire Drake, page 57, we read of Edward Wilmott Blyden, a brilliant black scholar who came to the forefront in the 1870's and 80's. He indicates from his research into Ethiopia's glorious past that in the earliest traditions of nearly all the more civilised nations of antiquity the name of this distant people, the Ethiopians, is found. The annuls of the Egyptian priests were full of them; so too the nations of inner Asia on the Euphrates and Tigris......when the Greeks scarcely knew Italy and Sicily by name, the Ethiopian was celebrated in verses of their poets as "the most just of men, the favorites of the gods."
That the ancients thought of the Ethiopians as having superior virtue is further illucidated on page 58 of Drake's Redemption of Africa and Black Religion - by a quotation from Homer which reads: "The sire of gods and .....the etherial train, on the warm limits of the furthest main, nor mix mortals nor disdain to grace, the feast of the Ethiopia's blameless race."
Blyden felt that the conclusion from his researches showed that the ancients seemed to regard the fear and love of God as the peculiar gift of the darker races, stating that in the version of the Chaldean Genesis as given by George Smith, the following passage occurs: "The word of the Lord will never fail in the mouth of the dark races whom He has made."
From the book, "Crucial Insights into African History" on page 79 we read an enlightening quotation of Aeschylos the Greek dramatist who makes the point clear when in "Prometheus Bound" he writes the following injunction "After thou shall come to a far land, a dark-skinned race that dwells beside the fountains of the sun, whence flows the river Aethiops: follow its banks until thou comest to the steep down slope where from the bibline mountains Nilus Old pours the sweet waters of His holy stream."26
Herodetus, the Greek historian, in his book "The Histories" wrote: "The Colchians, Ethiopians and Egyptians, have thick lips, broad noses, woolly hair and they are burnt of skin."27 Hence the verse, "Can the Ethiopian change his skin or the leopard its spots?" in Jeremiah 13:23; remembering that none other than Yashua or Jesus the Christ said, "the children of Israel are like Ethiopians among the people..." 28
The North-East Africans are again referred to in Isaiah 18 when we read: "Ethiopia, ah land of whirring wings, which is beyond the rivers of Ethiopia, which sends ambassadors by the Nile in vessels of papyrus upon the waters...... a nation tall and smooth, to a people feared near and far, a nation mighty and conquering whose land the rivers divide."
That the human race must have been born in the upper Nile area of Ethiopia,29 where the two causes of life, heat and humidity are ever present and where, before ordinary calculations of history, a social organisation appears fully structured with its religion, laws and institutions is further authenticated in La Cherubine's Nubi Paris: Collection L'Universe, 1847, pages 2 - 3.
In the book: "The African Origin of Civilisation - Myth or Reality", by Cheikh Anta Diop, at pages 281-282, the following passage from Diodirus of Sicily is quoted: "The Ethiopians call themselves the first of all men and sight proofs they consider evident. It is generally agreed, that born in a country and not having come from elsewhere, they must be judged indigenous. It is likely that located directly under the course of the sun, they sprang from the earth before other men. For if the heat of the sun combining with the humidity of the soil produces life, those sites nearest the equator, must have produced living beings earlier than any others."30 Hence Ethiopia (that is, the whole of North East Africa, in that North East Africa was referred to by some as "Ethiopia" in times past), and today's Middle East was, in the beginning, the most accommodating area of the plantation of God to cradle original humanity; original humanity, it must be remembered, that was created in the image and likeness of God.31
Professor Jerome Dowd in his volume "Negro Races" volume 3 at page 288, writes as follows: "The connection between palaeolithic man and the negro is very apparent. The African negro seems to be the survival of the first inhabitants of the Earth. The palaeolithic man who remains in Africa may have there developed a dark skin and woolly hair, while those who had migrated North and East may have developed in transit the caucasian and mongolian."
With the foregoing in mind, before dealing with the land of Lemuria, it should be mentioned that there is also, what can be referred to as an accommodating school of thought that propogates the idea that there were many Adams, so to speak; one for every race. For example, a black Adam and his family of people with pigmentation to deal with the hot equatorial sun in Africa; a red Adam and his people to harmonize with the predominantly red soil of Atlantis; a brown Adam and his people to harmonise with the windswept, undulating land of Lemuria in the Pacific; a yellow Adam and his people to harmonise with the yellowish soil of the Orient; and a white Adam and his people to harmonise with the environment of Europe where winter is prevalent and little pigmentation is necessary.32
Lemuria or the Land of Mu
As indicated before, what was referred to as the land of Mu lapped over and was part of the continents of Asia and Africa. At this juncture the whole of Europe, as well as North and South America were either submerged or swampland and therefore totally uninhabitable; certain parts of the present continents of Asia and Africa (outside of the Garden of Eden area) were also purported to be, to some extent, swamp lands. Hence, it is posited by some authorities that this ancient continent of Mu, which is now called Lemuria, could share the honour with North-East Africa and Asia Minor - (the Garden of Eden) - as the cradle of the human race.
Even if the above honour is to bestowed on Lemuria, it must be realised that Lemuria was populated from the original people of the Garden of Eden, that is, the indigenous people of North-East Africa and Asia Minor, who lived in the area between the river Nile (Gishon) and the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. In all ancient records and among all cultures and tribes of people it should be noted that there is a trace of the same traditional story of the creation of Man in the Garden of Eden just like the Genesis story of the Bible. This is so because all the traditional creation stories, including those of the ancient Babylonians, Assyrians, Chaldeans and Hebrews are all based on the most ancient, original: the creation story of the North-East Africans. For a masterful presentation on this one should read Gerald Massey's - Ancient Egypt: Light of the World - Volume 1-B pages 398 - 469.
For one hundred thousand years or more, the ancient continent of Lemuria (which was originally one with North East Africa, Asia, the Pacific Islands and Australia), rocked the early born of many tribes that descended from the earliest humans. It should be noted however that North East Africa and Asia Minor at the outset was the driest and most habitable portion of this vast continent or estate of God called Lemuria. Thus the old biblical story representing the ancient traditions of the history of Man is correct when it indicates that God created Man in the Garden of A/Eden after having created the other life forms or creatures over whom he was to have dominion. This in no way negates the divine evolutionary process of God's magnificent creation; an ordained process from the inception of creation.
Man developed to great heights over a period of millions of years on the now separated continent of Lemuria as over time great seismological magnetic waves, moving in an east to west circuit, had brought about vast changes on the surface and below the surface of the land and waters of this earth, leaving the continent of Mu, Lemuria, a smaller continent located entirely in the Pacific Ocean. The land mass called Lemuria was now therefore a separated continent from Africa and Asia. Despite this however, the still existing birth-place of Man, Africa and Asia Minor, which was then inhabited by black people, still cradled in its loving arms the first children of divine heritage along with the people of the now separated land of Mu or Lemuria.
These children of divine heritage at this time in history were well aware of and naturally subscribed to the law of opposites and were in harmony with the creative force of the Absolute One, the All-Father. Those divine spirit-souls, freshly incarnated in temples of human flesh lived in one harmony with God's word. They were aware that there was one dependable source of life, love and wisdom, that is, the All-Father and Creator of all that there is. Therefore, living in harmony and conscious recognition of God's natural laws came naturally to our ancient forebears. The dense or physical body (the flesh, blood and bones body), was new to original man, hence his attunement to God's spiritual and natural laws came easier. He was not yet ensnared by the flesh.
Our forebears accepted God as the grantor of all knowledge and grace, hence knowledge "was looked upon reverentially instead of as a commercial asset. That knowledge should be applied in a practical way seemed natural to them, for otherwise there would be no purpose in the revelation of knowledge."33
We read therefore, in a revealing book entitled: "The World Before" by Ruth Montgomery at page 36, that "early souls in human flesh were highly advanced beings capable of direct communication with those not yet fitted with the physical raiment of material earthly existence, and were also born with the natural awareness of God and Man, the equality of all beings in the eyes of God and the necessity each for the other to comprise a total whole." 34
As regards the land of Mu, W S Cerve indicates in the book "Lemuria" that it was mainly of a tropical nature; and living things of the vegetable kingdom as well as the animal kingdom lower than man, in intellect and spiritual evolvement grew to huge proportions. In various islands of the Pacific, specimens that have been discovered embedded into the soil and preserved through centuries indicate that even small insects grew to an enormous size; that which we call the ant today was at least two inches in length.35 The largest among the animals belonged to the class of the dinosauria which were undoubtedly the greatest destroyers of both animal and vegetable life.36
It is interesting however, to read in the book entitled "The World Before" at page 197 - that there were few gargantaun creatures in Africa and further that Africa was not overrun by dinosaurs. The animals there were said to have been restrained and not overproducing as the dinosaurs and mammoths in Lemuria.
Early man as indicated earlier had an excellent understanding of natural laws and their conception of God, "was of a universal principle both positive and negative, male and female, creative and loving in every sense. They looked upon all the processes of nature as constructive even when temporarily destructive and considered these as established laws of evolution, having been created by a loving God in the beginning of time. Their interpretation of God as analogous to the human individual was much like comparing God with a great master as well as parent of all living beings." 37
Man of the Adamic era was therefore spiritual to the point that he was said to still walk with God receiving direct instructions from the divine source. These are the same original beings of the Garden of Eden, of which Alexander Winchell in his book "Preadamites" page 158 says: "(t)here is indeed a legend in existence which has obtained a widespread currency according to which first the man was black or dark in complexion. There is even said to be a tablet in the British Museum brought by the late George Smith on which is an inscription which lends strange continence to the legend of the Black Adam."38 The bulk of authorities who write of the early men of Mu or Lemuria refer to them as a people of dark or brown complexion. Braunton in "History of Ancient People" at page 31 indicates "According to progressive theory the Earth may have been first peopled by men black in colour. If so the blacks reached their cultural climax in the ancient times. However, how much....... India and Southern Europe owe to them may never be known."39
At this juncture it may be worthwhile to note an observation made by Chancellor Williams in his book "Destruction of Black Civilization" at page 35. He writes : "An important factor that should be well known is that all unmixed Africans are not jet black for while the great majority are black-skinned, countless thousands who lived for centuries in cool areas have lighter complexion - and no caucasian blood at all". As may be observed through time the people and descendants of the African motherland have always been categorized by variations of the hues and shades one from another. That they are called black, brown, red or tanned is of no significance in that they are the self-same people, whom throughout history have been referred to as those of the black race, 'Negroes' or people of 'Negroid stock'. That the sons of that huge landmass called Lemuria, which was once one with Africa and Asia Minor, were referred to as brown as distinct from their brothers in Africa who were and are still referred to as black, needs not mystify any one of us today, because as we know, within one colloquially termed "Negro family," we find children called black, brown and red. 40
And as before observed, the physical characteristics and complexion of a people change through time depending on the climatic and environmental conditions. Hence, the Lemurian developed, over a period of time, what may be termed a brownish hue as distinct from the slightly darker inhabitants of the African motherland; this occurred because the separated continent of Lemuria was a vast land with some portions of it being semi-tropical in the windswept Pacific Area. "Environment", therefore "and the consequential effects of it, will change the nature, appearance, habits and customs of any race." writes W. S. Cerve, in the book "Lemuria"... "and it is perfectly possible for all of the races of man to have had one common origin and to have been identical in contenance, customs and habits until the members of this one original race became scattered in various parts of the World and developed future generations having such modifications as the effect of environment would produce."41
The Lemurian is described with what any Caucasian (white) would consider a pronounced African or Negroid characteristic; we read: "The nostrils were larger and the nose was broader and more flattened on the face than we find among the people of the Western World of the present period."42 Also, it is stated that although most of the Lemurians were exceedingly tall by today's standards, 6 - 7 ft tall with long prominent foreheads, there were others in the early times that were tinnier than midgets, all loving to sing and dance to rhythms.43 The above idiosyncrasies are still easily traceable to the Africans commonly referred to as Watutsis and Pygmies respectively.
The Lemurian's hair which grew far back on the head "grew very long and was often braided or arranged in very fancy forms across the shoulders or down the back",44 which is not unlike all the ancient inhabitants of Ethiopia and the Nile Valley who are seen in all temple drawings, carvings and statues with braided hair down their backs. Initially the Lemurians' 'cyclops-type', third eye (the centre between the eye-brows) was said to have been highly developed and mental telepathy was the norm;45 later in Lemurian history however, they were said to have sent long distance messages by drums to whole communities at a time, as is traditionally practiced in some parts of Africa. The Lemurians are said to have been primarily vegetarians and generally considered a very healthy people.46 From time immemorial herbs were used in Lemuria for healing and maintaining health; but spiritual healing via prayer, meditation, incantations and the laying of hands was commonplace.47
From research and findings of anthropologists, it is submitted that those early people of the Adamic era developed a very high culture, with a great sense of community spirit. It is stated "that the Lemurians issued no coins and had no such commodity or device as money. No one received any form of remuneration for his effort except the privilege of sharing in all the community interest."48 The Lemurians were not considered very inventive people, "but the superlative development of a philosophy for living and their dedication to divine laws" made them leaders in goodness and thought.49
Fall of Man-
In those remote times some portions of the Earth, especially the land of Mu, were constantly in a steaming condition due to large areas of boiling lava. There were cataclysms and volcanic eruptions, hence through thousands of years of struggle and experience early man came to realise attachment and loss, pain and suffering. Eventually from experiencing such loss and pain many Lemurians understood that attachment to earthly material was folly and at its best transitory. Material possessions were therefore considered unreliable and the unreal part of life.50
Those early beings "were not only firm believers in the doctrine of reincarnation, but they had ample time and the faculty with which to prove that reincarnation was a fact, and that there were those living among them who had lived before on the same continent and in intimate contact with them......"51
Knowing of reincarnation, they viewed what we commonly called "death" as a mere transition from the three dimensional plane whereby the Spirit-Soul Essence finally departs from the body by the severance of the silver cord, as explained in Chapter 2.52 Also as explained in Chapter 2, they knew that the physical body is of the Earth kingdom, hence, if it is not spiritualised by the Christ Spirit, it is returned to the elements of mother Earth from whence it came; and the Spirit-Soul moves on to the heavenly sphere, the other mansions of the Father's house. There the Spirit-Soul dwells until rebirth in another Earth life. The Spirit-Soul then makes another effort at overcoming the Earth school-room by the realisation of the Christ within. The foregoing was common knowledge in this era of our forebears.
Death or transition to the heavenly spheres was not shrouded with fear and mystery but was well understood . "Each knew his place, in the scheme of things, and for that reason, there was no violence and no revolt. Parents understood that these little ones were souls, whole as themselves, who had chosen them as parents to learn the lessons of the flesh and they were therefore regarded as peers".53
Through the effluxion of time, however, those beings of whom it is said were as unconscious of this physical world as we are in our sleep became deeply and smugly immersed in the garments of flesh. In time the wearer of the flesh, blood and bones body was less capable of distinguishing himself from the garment; much like man of today.
The Lemurians, who lived lives filled with impending danger from unexpected volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tidal waves and attacks from hordes of wild creatures, were a people severely tested.54 Some in desperation, had to live under trying conditions of swamplands and boiling lava and they gradually generated a negative current of thought doubting the wisdom of the Divine Sculptor, Originator, and Creator.
Their faith was sorely shaken and gradually their fine attunement to divine plan was dullened. Man wanted to be a free moral agent. Hence he was given his full freedom; free will to choose his own course. God did not compel man to do or not to do this or that, but indicated to him that blessings would be his if he acted in love and harmony with the divine plan, and of necessity, as a natural requisite of divine justice and balance, as a rule, contrary actions to divine law would magnetize what some would term punishment, divine rectification, or retributive rehabilitation.
Man's descent into the flesh was now complete. Being totally immersed in the bodily frame he explored in his own manner and as a result lost track of his original identity and divinity. He became more strongly controlled by the senses, as the material thoughts and desires of generations beclouded the lustre and allurement of his spiritual origin. Man steadily became more accustomed to nurturing negative thoughts of fear, self-doubt, selfish desires, hatred and foreboding evil. From this followed warped desires and actions and a general falling away from Divine Will. Thus the arrival of what is referred to as evil, personified by Lucifer. Through time however, even this is to realize an honourable purpose: that of strengthening Man's will for good; not just a passive acceptance of good but causing him through life's struggles to experience a higher state of consciousness, culminating in a conscious at-one-ment with and willful submission to God's will, power, activity and purpose.
At this time however, in the Adamic era or Lemurian epoch, the battle of the Indwelling Spirit-Soul against the ever increasing earthly prompting of mortal flesh became a living reality. Man, having demanded free will, and being able to arrive at decisions after reasoning, decided his own path, and in consequence, some fell by the wayside. They, it may be added, were ably assisted by this negative force epitomized as Lucifer of whom the Prophet Isaiah speaks when he says: "How art thou fallen from heaven O Lucifer, Son of the Morning. How art thou cut down to the ground which didst weaken the nations. For thou hast said in thy heart: I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God, I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation in the sides of the North, I will ascend above the heights of the clouds, I will be like the Most High, yet thou shall be brought down to hell, to the side of the pit".55
Hence, we read in the Bible of the temptations of Eve and the concomitant fall of Man, orchestrated by the evil force, Lucifer. In the allegorical form of the serpent, Lucifer deceives Eve into eating the forbidden fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil. In Genesis, 14:9, we read of the universally known tree of life in the midst of the garden. And at Genesis 3: 2-6, we read: "And the woman said to the serpent, we may eat of the fruit trees of the garden, but God said: You shall not eat of the food of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, neither shall you touch it, less you die. But the serpent said to the woman: You will not die, for God knows that when you eat of it, your eyes will be opened and you will be like God, knowing good and evil." It is noteworthy, that the symbol of the tree and the serpent, which has been thoroughly dealt with in Chapter 2, is used in just about all the legendary works of antiquity and wisdom throughout the world.
As pointed out before, the serpent represents the duality of wisdom (perfect knowledge) and sexuality. Man therefore being a miniature creation of God, with creative force inherent in his divine nature, helps to create. This he does by utilising this creative force or potentiality for either physical ends whereby that force flows downwards into the generative organs (for sexual purposes); or on the other hand may direct this creative force into the realisation of truth whereby this divine energy goes upward to the brain granting the incarnate soul in flesh, divine attunement and spiritual illumination; the mystic marriage with his Christ within, which has been thoroughly dealt with in Chapter 2.
The decline of the Adamic period or the Garden of Eden era (when all was beautiful and harmonious), is personified by the original embodied soul Adam and then Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden; at first they lived lives of perfect health and happiness, in harmony with God's Will (God's Laws), but subsequently being ensnared by Lucifer represented by the serpent, they fell away from the will and the way of God. And as indicated above, the tree of life is a symbol of the spinal cord and the brain. "The snake was merely a symbol for the Kundulini;(the creative power which lies coiled like a serpent at the base of the spine until awakened), and the forbidden fruit was the opening of the seven chakras (the psychic centres, their physical counterparts being the ductless- endocrine- glands) too suddenly, with emphasis on the gonads (the earthly centre) rather than on the pineal gland, (the Holy Spirit centre) and the pituitary gland, (the master gland or god force). This Kundulini or creative force makes man divine whereby great power is released within him. The misuse of the resultant power does not lead to divinity, but of necessity leads to the degradation of the recipient."56
Man then, was still capable of awakening the kundulini, serpentine, or Christ force within him and his psychic centres, but his carnal mind was now in control thus he abused his life force, and as mentioned above, the trunk of the tree in the microcosmic sense or within man is represented by the spinal column, cord and brain. The spreading branches are the afferent and efferent nerves in the body, the flowers are represented by the force centres or chakras in the etheric and superphysical bodies, together with their associated nerve centres and glands in the physical body."57 The "fruits" of the tree in man "consist of the natural (attributes or) products of the evolutionary process" and in Nature "represent the varied life-imbued forms which she, with such prodigality, ever continues to produce."58
Man's existence, therefore, during the Adamic era of the Garden of Eden may be likened to the innocence and faithful obedience of an individual's childhood where the parents' guiding light is the order of the day. Whereas Man's estrangement from this orderly state of affairs by his wanting to be a free moral agent may be likened to the period of puberty and adolescence when the vast changes in the physical make-up take place, the desire body is fully formed, mistakes are abundant and many a painful lesson learnt.
As before alluded to, the descent of the Spirit-Soul into the fleshy embodiment was now complete. Man, having lost sight of his higher spiritual consciousness, naively overemphasized his physical sexuality by wrong concentration of mind, which resulted in an excessive concentration of divine energy in the generative organs.
In the book: "The Hidden Wisdom of the Holy Bible" by Geoffrey Hodson, page 152, it is succinctly put as follows: "Between the innocence of Eden and full redemption or accension into adeptship, man passes through a period of bondage in captivity, subservience to materialism, selfishness and sensuality......."
It cannot be over-emphasized at this juncture that the Creator is the Epitome of justice and He works through universal laws which are imbued with perfect justice. Anything short of this would lead to an erratic universe. Therefore the prerogative of justice is the impartial implementation of those laws coupled with grace, understanding and love. Hence a rejection of God's ordained laws of life of necessity creates a reaction so as to right the wrong or momentary imbalance which we in our material limited perspective would refer to as punishment. The impersonal universal law of justice, Karma, or "as you sow so shall ye reap" should not therefore be understood as condemnation, retribution or punishment, but as the manifestation of divine love, creating harmony where there is disharmony and the gaining of redemption from past folly; substituting wisdom for ignorance. It provides man with a means of subsequent joy and blessing for his past sufferings and failures. Hence divine justice can be seen as one of the attributes of the Absolute One which indicates unreservedly, the patience and loving kindness shown by God to struggling humanity.
Mankind in those days was indeed struggling. Not only was he experiencing inner turmoil at the emotional and spiritual level, but his immediate material environment also manifested awesome upheavals and cataclysms. It must be remembered that unlike the now separated African Continent, steamy conditions always existed on the Lemurian Continent, with large turbulent areas of boiling lava.59 This created great disillusionment in the Lemurians. Sickness, pain and death seemed to be the now ever present bitter fruits of their harvest.
The continent Lemuria itself was still continuing to sink. The Western portions of Lemuria were sinking quite rapidly, forming the new continent of Australia, the islands around it and the Pacific Islands. The present day continent of North and South America was however now rising rapidly and becoming covered with heavy vegetation.
W.S Cerve in his book, "Lemuria" indicates that today's North and South America began to drift and separate itself from the rest of Europe and Africa,60 which incidentally, is on all fours with Alfred Wegener's Continental Drift Theory. Cerve continues - "(t)o those who may wonder whether or not it is possible for a continent to drift let me say that there are many and sufficient proofs in the sciences of archeology and geology to show that this is possible; not all land on the surface of the earth is a part of the submarine floor or body of the earth. Even when continents are attached to the body of the earth, these continents can be moved and have moved through the changes in the surface of the earth caused by earthquakes and cataclysms of various kinds."61
Cerve also posits that on studying the Earth as a sphere, there must be internal regions of space filled with intense heat and gases or what is referred to in the book: "The World Before" as `gas pockets'. In consequence, during cataclysms of the past, land that has been engulfed by these vast internal spaces of the Earth, has disappeared and may not therefore always be discoverable through deep sea exploration. "In keeping with the magnetic pulsations and earthquakes moving in a westerly direction around the Earth, the continent that became North and South America moved westerly in a gradual manner separating itself entirely from Europe, Africa, and Greenland."62 This created a vast unstable area between these continents, more specifically in the area that became known much later in history as the Atlantic Ocean. Some authorities indicate that the final tumultuous destruction of Lemuria as a continent took place around 48,000 B.C;63 other authorities cite the event much earlier, more like 80,000 to 100,000 years B.C.
Besides the ancient lands of North East Africa and Asia Minor, which were once fused with Lemuria, Lemuria can be best experienced in Australia, Polynesia, Hawaii and Tahiti; although its philosophy, culture and religion may to some extent be experienced in India. 64 It is also interesting to note that it is written that after the first great catastrophe that destroyed most of the vast continent of Lemuria, the smaller continent that remained in the centre of the Pacific developed trade and other linkages with the new South American continent, especially the northern part of it. Today's North America was said still to have been swampland.65
"At the same time, we find that a new continent was beginning to rise in (today's) Atlantic" ..... "contacting and uniting North America with the shore of Europe and Africa." 66 Some authorities are of the view that this continent began as a land bridge connecting the so-called 'new world' to the 'old world,' later becoming a "large continent - which was finally broken up into a series of separated islands."67
This continent which was known as Atlantis68 arose above the surface of the water between seventy-five and fifty thousand years ago.69 The continent initially occupied a vast area in the Atlantic; the peaks of its mountainous western shores being today's Caribbean chain of islands; many of those islands are washed by both the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Oceans. Those mountain peaks of the submerged continent run from Florida through the Caribbean chain of islands to South America.
Today's North and South American continents are said to have risen considerably with the rising of Atlantis.70 In North and South America new rugged mountains, highlands, lakes and rivers were formed; one was formed in South America.71 The Caribbean chain of islands and a fair portion of what is immersed under the Caribbean Sea in the Gulf of Mexico was initially shown to have been connected to the Atlantean continent.72
In the book - The World Before we read : "Atlantis stretched from the East rim of the Americas, including the coastal parts of Georgia, the Carolinas, Virginia, the West Indies (Caribbean), and Brazil, across what is now ocean.......nearly to the west coast of Africa."73 It is noteworthy that today it is well accepted that "the Atlantic is one of the least stable parts of the world's crust and is subject to upheavals along the whole submarine Northern Mid-Ridge, which extends along the sea bottom from Northern Brazil to Iceland, and where upheavals can still cause raising or lowering of land mass."74
On the rising of Atlantis, the leading civilisations or high cultures were cradled in Lemuria, Africa (Alkebulan), and Asia Minor - today's Middle East. Initially the early settlers came from those places of civilisation; later white inhabitants also formed part of the Atlantean Empire coming from the area of the Caucasus mountains.75 At a later stage in history as will be elaborated on below, there was a tremendous influx of people from Asia and the Far East via the Bering Strait (which was then one with North America) and from there to the remnants of Atlantis in the Caribbean area as well as Central and South America.76
Although there were Atlanteans who would be called black, white, or yellow people, over time, the Atlanteans were described as reddish-brown in colour; generally, through the ages Atlantis became known as the continent of "the red people". They were also generally described as people with black, piercing eyes and black, thick, shiny hair, very much like the Indians of North and South America, the Carib Indians of the Caribbean and the Arabs of North East Africa and today's Middle East.
Many authorities indicate that the atmosphere of the early Atlantean continent was considerably different from our's today. In the early days the atmosphere was foggy and heavy. This was due to the meeting in Atlantis of two currents of air, that is, the fiery currents of air that swept northward from the still turbulent, fiery volcanoes from the South and the cold air that wafted down from the Northern polar region.77 The early Atlantean is said to have depended more on inner perception than external perception, such as their eye-sight. Initially their higher vehicles or bodies, such as their Etheric body, were not yet a perfect fit with the dense, physical body. "The spirit was not quite an indwelling spirit(.)"78 The subtle Etheric and Astral Worlds were perceived by early Atlanteans. As time elapsed, however, the atmosphere of Atlantis cleared up and the higher vehicles of Atlanteans became completely fused with their dense, physical bodies; thereafter the perception of those subtle Worlds became less common. The brain developed further and the faculties of the mind, the intellect and reasoning came to the fore; unfortunately at that juncture of human development, this was at the expense of spiritual sensitivity and vision in many Atlanteans.79
When Atlantis was at its zenith, it was considered a land of milk and honey, a veritable paradise.80 Some authorities refer to the time of Atlantis as the last golden era of Man. The great being referred to as King Atlas, who many think of as mythical, is said to have existed and was like the Adam of Atlantis, the founding Father and Ruler of Atlantis.81 The initial language of King Atlas and his descendants was one of symbolism coupled with thought transference. He is said to have been capable of not only projecting his thought-forms but materializing his thought-forms.82 The Kings and Rulers through the early ages of Atlantis were seen as divine Kings and Rulers by the grace of God, so to speak. In time, however, in the later stages, even the Rulers became not only very 'human' but intoxicated with power and decadent.
The Atlanteans for a long time, or during what is referred to as 'the Atlantean era', were looked up to as the most advanced in the world in science, technology, education and material development; although many authorities would, with good cause, suggest that the continent of Atlantis, even at its zenith, never transcended Africa (Alkebulan) and Lemuria in religion, philosophy and high culture (civilisation).83
In the latter stages of Atlantean history and civilization, in keeping with what was said above, the mind, its physical counterpart - the brain - and by extension the intellect and reasoning, developed rapidly at the expense of spiritual sensitivity and attunement; the result of this transition of emphasis was materialism and selfishness. Gradually, even their Rulers and Kings, as abovementioned, became intoxicated with their power and influence world-wide. They worshipped themselves and their material science. Their understanding and utilization of electrical and other forces of nature were outstanding, but eventually disastrous. They were said to have mastered the art of harnessing electro-magnetic energy by the use of Solar (Sun) energy via geometrically cut crystals. In the hands of heartless materialists, such power always spells disaster; any human being with a highly developed intellect without the balance of a loving heart, in today's World of Sodom, is usually a selfish, egotistical warp: sometimes a devil incarnate.
Atlanteans in the later stages of their history were generally categorized as either the scientific, ruling class, referred to as "the Sons and Daughters of Belial", or the peace-loving, natural living, humble class, referred to as "the Children of the Law of One" or "the Sons and Daughters of Light". The ways of the Children of the Law of One were seen as antiquated, unscientific and quaint; for that matter their natural, God centered, simple life-style was ridiculed and frowned upon. They were the Noah element of Atlantean society.
Before the beginning of the end of the Atlantean Empire (which was the first cataclysm that rocked Atlantis), the Atlanteans had perfected a huge, geometrically cut crystal referred to at different times as the "Terrible", "Bestial" or "Great" Crystal.84 This "Terrible Crystal" as it was called by Ezekiel of the Bible, was supposedly housed in the scientific headquarters of the Continent. The scientific headquarters was said to have been located in the area of today's Bermuda Triangle, formerly called the Sargasso Sea.85
The Terrible Crystal was said to have been in the control of the sons of Belial, the demi-gods of the day. They arrogantly harnessed tremendous energy from the sun which in time (by dint of warped hearts and minds) they used for destructive purposes - causing volcanic eruptions, earth tremors, earthquakes and cataclysms wherever they so desired; at least so they thought, as will be explained below. The harnessing of electro-magnetic energy (by the use of solar energy and crystals) was akin to what nuclear energy represents in today's World, but it was a far cleaner and more potent energy or power source than nuclear energy. It should be noted - by those who have eyes to see and ears to hear - that Ezekiel, the Priest and son of Buzi, spoke of "the colour of the Terrible Crystal".86 He clearly referred to "the terrible crystal" in a manner that reflected that the people he addressed were not only aware of this "terrible crystal", but the colour of it as well.
As indicated above, the Atlantean demi-god Rulers used electro-magnetic power generated by the Terrible Crystal to cause cataclysmic destruction wherever they desired until eventually their misdeeds caught up with them. Some authorities indicate that when the Atlanteans directed electro-magnetic energy like a laser beam through the Earth's crust in an effort to destroy the Ancient Empire of Kush they disturbed the gaseous pockets and weaknesses beneath their own Continent. Other authorities indicate that the Atlantean attack was not directed at Kush but at the ancient Chinese Empire. Be that as it may, the result was the first big cataclysm that not only rocked Atlantis, but sank vast parts of the ancient continent.
The scientific headquarters with its bestial contents, the Terrible Crystal, sank beneath the ocean, where it is said to remain buried to this day - off two small Bahamian islands, namely, Andros and Bimini. After the first cataclysm, which is said to have occurred around twenty thousand B.C., the remnants of Atlantis were comprised of many small islands and two very large islands that became known as Poseidia and Og. Thereafter the area of the Atlantic Ocean was less stable than before. Eventually the last big upheaval took place around twelve thousand B.C. The islands of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea remain as remnants of this Ancient Continent.
By and large the most direct blood-line descendants are said to be the Indians of North, Central and South America, the Arawaks, (now largely deceased), and the few surviving Caribs who, like the Indians of North, Central87 and South America, managed to survive by the grace of God - the onslaught of the Europeans much later in history.88 Before moving on it should be noted that later in history the Atlantean descendants in North, Central and South America as well as in the Caribbean interbred heavily with Asians. This occurred around "12,000 years ago, the end of the last Ice Age, (when) small bands of Asian nomads began to cross the dry land bridge that spanned what is now the Bering Strait, between Siberia and Alaska. The migrations continued intermittently, and when melting ice flooded the land bridge, they stopped."89
On the sinking of Atlantis, there was also said to be some inter-breeding with their original forebears, the Africans, especially from North-West and North-East Africa, the Asians of Asia Minor, as well as the early inhabitants of today's British Isles. It is indicated by some authorities that the more advanced Atlantean Souls journeyed to North East Africa, more specifically, Egypt.90
Unfortunately, some of those authorities try to give most of the credit for the great Egyptian civilisation to Atlantean influence, which is totally misleading and sometimes undeniably racist. It must never be forgotten that although the Atlantean presence in Egypt and Asia Minor must have had some influence, the North East African civilisation (high culture) antedates that of the Atlantean and I daresay even the Lemurian civilisation. The history of the North-East African is the essence of antiquity; it represents the Adamic or Edenic era of human existence.
Today, the influence of Ancient Atlantis can be seen in many books, articles and stories that speak of the strange occurrences in today's Bermuda Triangle; and in the distant past, of strange, if not eerie experiences in the area of the Sargasso sea. Incidentally, the Sargasso sea occupied the same area as today's Bermuda Triangle. The ancient Sargasso Sea has always been described and portrayed as a murky area shrouded in cloud; an area where the sea was always full of floating sea weed with thick vegetation (quite visible) just beneath the surface of the water; an area where sailors, who were brave enough to ply its waters, experienced an overbearing, stagnant heat and an unforgettable stillness.
The above description of the area of the Sargasso Sea is in keeping with the tremendous atmospheric and geo-physical changes that would be expected from the horrendous volcanic eruptions and other seismic activity that was experienced in the area of ancient Atlantis.
After the devastation of Atlantis, the area of the Atlantic and today's Caribbean took, of necessity, a long time to settle down and 'heal' itself, so to speak. There would have been a vast amount of volcanic ash in the area accompanied by dark, dense volcanic clouds; weather patterns would also have changed dramatically; oozes of molten lava would have been experienced in unstable areas; this would have been accompanied by gaseous fumes and mist; dense vegetation having recently been plunged beneath the ocean would also have floated eerily, just beneath the surface of the water. It is submitted that the smog sometimes experienced in the area of the Sargasso Sea was also partly the result of the cold currents from the North coming in contact with the new, warm Gulf Stream flowing northward from the South. This new, warm Gulf Stream, now unobstructed by any landmass, flowed rapidly northward causing tremendous melting throughout the Northern area, including the area we refer to as the Bering Strait.
Africa or Eden and its contribution to Civilisation
Having dealt with the birth and development of humanity, that is, from the Adamic era in Africa and Asia Minor, then in Lemuria and Atlantis, we will now examine Africa and its contribution to civilisation; such an examination must of necessity observe the progress of African people, who are the direct blood descendants of the Adam and Eve family. This historical fact really needs no further elaboration as the evidence of this has been thoroughly presented earlier in this Chapter. However, despite the mountain of evidence, some detractors may still glibly say that the writings of the ancient historians (now endorsed by the scientific findings of archeologists, anthropologists and geneticists) are all wrong. May those bigoted souls be blessed and refined by the spirit of truth.
Before doing a brief examination of Africa and its contribution to civilisation, it would be remiss of me not to call to mind the Omniscient, All-Father's undying love for Eden/Aden, the African Motherland, the birthplace of humanity. This love is clearly reflected by the enduring nature of the African continent; some may even say everlasting nature, which is a blessing indeed. Because, whilst we speak of Lemuria through the haze of antiquity, and nowadays, of the possible re-emergence of Atlantis, the continent of Africa has endured through the ages; and indeed, so has its progeny.
Around the time of the initial destruction of vast parts of Atlantis (around 20 000 B.C) and right through to the time of its final sinking (around 12 000 -10 000 B.C), there thrived in North-East Africa a great empire known as the Empire of Kush or Cush, which, as indicated above, was later referred to by the Greeks and Europeans generally, as Aethiopia or Ethiopia.
This Empire of Kush was said to have been ruled around 19 000 B.C by a great Kushite King called Minos or Min. Unfortunately, this Kushite King called Min has been merged by some European authors with another great Kushite King named Menes, who overran, much later in history, what became known as Lower Egypt (today's Egypt). Menes overran Lower Egypt in 3 100 B.C. and therefore lived roughly 16 000 years after King Min. This blending of the two Kushite personalities into one by western histography was clearly done to lessen the antiquity of Egyptian civilisation (so as to give the impression that Egyptian civilisation suddenly dropped from the sky),91 as well as to attempt to erase the undeniable blood and cultural ties between Egypt and Kush (Ethiopia). However, the kinship of Egypt, Nubia (Sudan) and Kush (Ethiopia) is undeniable and this family tie is reflected in the Biblical fact that Mesraim and Kush are both sons of Ham.92
It is submitted that the de-africanisation of Egypt and Ethiopia93 has become almost an obsession of some modern, western writers, who are unfortunately tainted with the schism or cancer of today's world: white racism.94 This racism did not exist when many of the ancient historians and scholars wrote of the ancient African people. These Africans were known to have developed colonies and empires both in North East Africa and Asia Minor; and for that matter, from the inception of humanity, the progeny of Africa spread all over the habitable land of ancient Lemuria, where they developed separately in a different environment. Later in history they spread their civilisation (high-culture) to Greece and other parts of Europe.
For a masterful critique on Western histography of Ancient Kush and Egypt one should read Chapter 6 of the book entitled : Crucial Insights into African History written by Professor George O. Cox. The entire book is most enlightening and worth reading. This great empire called Kush by the Hebrews and Ethiopia by the Greeks, thrived under King Min. Historical records reflect that it was Kushite/Ethiopian colonists of King Min who were sent north to drain the swamplands after diverting the great Nile river's course. It was the said Kushite/Ethiopian colonists of King Min who built and inhabited the original city of Memphis. But before the establishment of Memphis the Kushite "governmental headquarters" was Thebes or Egypt, as it was then called, located higher up the Nile valley. That is why Herodotus, the ancient Greek historian, indicates in his writings that in ancient times, the name of Egypt was used to refer to what became known as Thebes.95 What we refer to as Egypt today is the Delta area of the Nile or what was referred to as Lower Egypt.
The direct link between Egypt and Ethiopia/Kush is substantiated by classical literature. The ancient historian and geographer called Diodorus of Sicily wrote that the original Egyptians were Ethiopian colonists.96 Further, as indicated before, early European scholars like the geographer Strabo, referred not only to North-East Africans, but to all Africans, as Ethiopians.97 As pointed out by Professor Cox, the genealogies that are usually given of the so-called dynastic rulers of Egypt (that is, low