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This recessive trait is the inability to carry or reproduce melanin in sufficent quantity.

The lack of pigmentation in the iris of the eyes, the skin and the hair comes from the latin word "albus," meaning white.



Reptiles, fish, amphibians and mammals share this condition along with humans.

Albinos were/are the off-spring of Black mothers and fathers from Africa that migrated [i.e. forced or voluntary] to the Caucus Mountains in Europe 6,000 years ago and exist as Euro-Caucasians today.

The results of this 6,000 year-old mutation process is what you and I witness today as white people: America, Europe, and Australia.

Sources
"The Isis Papers" by Dr. Frances Cress Welsing
http://www.stewartsynopsis.com/chapter_7.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albino

Always Remember that: "Anytime We As A People Are Not Having Our WaySomeone Else Is Having Theirs...And It's Never To Our Advantage."

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Origins of white skin in humans

Several genes have been invoked to explain variations of skin color in humans, including ASIP, MATP, TYR, and OCA2[3]. A recently discovered gene, SLC24A5 has been shown to account for a substantial fraction of the difference in the average of 30 or so melanin units between European-Americans and African-Americans.

Wide variations in human skin color have been correlated with mutations in another gene; the MC1R gene (Harding et al 2000:1351). The "MC1R" label for the gene stands for melanocortin 1 receptor, where

* "melano" refers to black,
* "melanocortin" refers to the hormone stimulant produced by the pituitary gland that orders cells to produce the melanin that makes skin cells black,
* the "1" in the MC1R gene name specifies the first family of melanocortin genes, and
* "receptor" indicates that the protein from the gene serves as a signal relay from outside the cell wall to inside the cell wall--to the place in the cell where the black melanin is synthesized.

Accordingly, the MC1R gene specifies the amino acid sequence in the receptor protein that relays through the cell wall the hormone signal from the pituitary gland to produce the melanin that makes human skin black. Many variations in the amino acid sequence of this receptor protein result in lighter or darker skin.

The human MC1R gene consists of a string of 954 nucleotides, where each nucleotide is one of the four bases Adenosine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T), or Cytosine (C). But 261 of the nucleotides in the MC1R gene can change with no effect on the amino acid sequence in the receptor protein produced from the gene. For example, the nucleotide triplets GGT, GGC, GGA, and GGG are all synonymous and all produce the amino acid Glycine, ( See DNA Codon Table ) so a mutation in the third position in the triplet GGT is a "silent mutation" and has no effect on the amino acid produced from the triplet. Harding et al (2000:1355) analyzed the amino acid sequences in the receptor proteins from 106 individuals from Africa and 524 individuals from outside Africa to find why the color of all the Africans' skin was black. Harding found that there were zero differences among the Africans for the amino acid sequences in their receptor proteins, so the skin of each individual from Africa was black. In contrast, among the non-African individuals, there were 18 different amino acid sites in which the receptor proteins differed, and each amino acid that differed from the African receptor protein resulted in skin lighter than the skin of the African individuals. Nonetheless, the variations in the 261 silent sites in the MC1R were similar between the Africans and non-Africans, so the basic mutation rates among the Africans and non-Africans were the same. Why were there zero differences and no divergences in the amino acid sequences of the receptor protein among the Africans while there were 18 differences among the populations in Ireland, England, and Sweden?

Harding (2000:1359-1360) concluded that the intense sun in Africa created an evolutionary constraint that reduced severely the survival of progeny with any difference in the 693 sites of the MC1R gene that resulted in even one small change in the amino acid sequence of the receptor protein--because any variation from the African receptor protein produced significantly whiter skin that gave less protection from the intense African sun. In contrast, in Sweden, for example, the sun was so weak that no mutation in the receptor protein reduced the survival probability of progeny. Indeed, for the individuals from Ireland, England, and Sweden, the mutation variations among the 693 gene sites that caused changes in amino acid sequence was the same as the mutation variations in the 261 gene sites at which silent mutations still produced the same amino acid sequence. Thus, Harding concluded that the intense sun in Africa selectively killed off the progeny of individuals who had a mutation in the MC1R gene that made the skin whiter. However, the mutation rate toward whiter skin in the progeny of those African individuals who had moved North to areas with weaker sun was comparable to the MC1R mutation rate of the white folks whose ancient ancestors grew up in Sweden. Hence, Harding concluded that the whiteness of human skin was a direct result of random mutations in the MC1R gene that were non-lethal at the latitudes of Ireland, England, and Sweden. Even the mutations that produce red hair with little ability to tan were non-lethal in the northern latitudes.

Rogers, Iltis, and Wooding (2004) examined Harding's data on the variation of MC1R nucleotide sequences for people of different ancestry to determine the most probable progression of the skin color of human ancestors over the last 5 million years. Comparing the MC1R nucleotide sequences for chimpanzees and humans in various regions of the earth, Rogers concluded that the common ancestors of all humans had white skin color under dark hair--similar to the skin and hair color pattern of today's chimpanzees. That is 5 million years ago, the human ancestors' dark hair protected their white skin from the intense African sun so that there was no evolutionary constraint that killed off the progeny of those who had mutations in the MC1R nucleotide sequences that made their skin white.

However, over 1.2 million years ago, judging from the numbers and spread of variations among human and chimpanzee MC1R nucleotide sequences, the human ancestors in Africa began to lose their hair and they came under increasing evolutionary pressures that killed off the progeny of individuals that retained the inherited whiteness of their skin. By 1.2 million years ago, all people having descendants today had exactly the receptor protein of today's Africans; their skin was black, and the intense sun killed off the progeny with any whiter skin that resulted from mutational variation in the receptor protein (Rogers 2004:107).

However, the progeny of those humans who migrated North away from the intense African sun were not under the evolutionary constraint that keeps human skin black generation after generation in Africa. Tracking back the statistical patterns in variations in DNA among all known people sampled who are alive on the earth today, Rogers concluded the following: 1) from 1.2 million years ago for a million years, the ancestors of all people alive today were as black as today's Africans, 2) for that period of a million years, human ancestors lived naked without clothing, and 3) the descendants of any people who migrate North from Africa will mutate to become white over time because the evolutionary constraint that keeps Africans' skin black generation after generation decreases generally the further North a people migrates (Rogers 2004). This latest assertion (3) however, does not take into account the period of time over which this mutation is to take place. The dependence on this period of time will make Rogers' thesis either hold as the period of time accommodates to the variability observed, or sway. No studies have yet been made to try to find out this rate of mutation.
BLACK SKIN IS THE GENETIC PARENT!

Caucasians are albinos
Whites cannot reproduce anything but themselves! Through powerful propaganda and indoctrination we have been completely oblivious to what having white skin really means. We have been skillfully mislead to believe that white skin is mankind's anthropological model and should be coveted. However, recent research paints a picture of white skin that is just the antithesis of what we have been brainwashed to believe. The polar bear analysis that was done by the Discovery Channel helps prove my point. If you shave the hair off a polar bear, the skin beneath is black. In nature the skin of the polar bear is black to absorb as much heat and light as possible to keep the arctic animal warm in its environment. It is also true for the Eskimo (Inuit). Human adaptation remains an insufficiently studied part of climate and climate change. Scientists have tried for years to prove that the environment was responsible for altering heredity.

Eskimos have brown skin. Eskimos have broad, flat noses. Africans have brown skin. Africans have broad, flat noses. Scientific studies have reported that people are dark because they live near the equator"”not because they are Negroid or have a Negroid admixture. There are repeated arguments made by anthropologists when referring to Arabs being brown in color because of the equalitarian closeness. So what about the brownness of skin that occurs in mankind who live the furthest from the equator"”the Artic? Also, the Eskimos' nose shape does not work to explain temperature-dependencies. Broad, flat noses are more beneficial in hot environments"”Oh really!

Scientifically speaking, Black objects absorb heat very well and also emit heat very well. If heat wasn't emitted at the same rate as was is absorbed, the black object would just get hotter and hotter until it melted. A black beaker cools down much faster than a shiny beaker that does not absorb or emit heat well at all. That is why snow does not melt in cold weather even when the sun is falling directly on it. All of the incident light energy is reflected away and none (or very little) is absorbed.

If black absorbs heat and light and white reflects it, how can we say that white people are adapted more to cold environments than warm? That insinuation that white skin is a result of environmental adaptation is the same orthodox dogma that we have been spoon fed for generations, however when subjected to scientific scrutiny it doesn't hold water. Reports FALSELY SUGGESTED that Senegalese troops during World War I and Ethiopian troops during the Korean War showed higher rates of frostbite and frozen feet in the African soldiers than their European counterparts. The laboratory work of the researchers also suggested that black skin tissue was more prone to cold injury; however white skin also exhibited some damage. After further research the following was indicated: It was SCIENTIFICALLY PROVEN that samples of black skin tissue were less vulnerable to cold damage than the lighter European tissue. This does not sound indicative of white skin being more suitable to cold climates.

Caucasians have a higher concentration of enzyme inhibitors that suppress melanin production, according to Halprin & Ohkawara, 1966. White people also have calcified pineal glands.

You may ask how does this imply that white skin is a genetic defect.....The pineal gland secretes melatonin, which activates the pituitary to release M.S.H. (Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone). It is in the melanocytes that melanin (Greek "melas"=black) is produced. Melanin is somewhat analogous to chlorophyll in plants. What a lot of people don't realize is that melatonin is also related to fertility. Those with pigmented skin have the highest counts of melanocytes in the genitalia and nipples. The pigmentation in these areas can be influenced by sex hormones like estrogens and androgens. During pregnancy, the nipples, face, and abdominal wall become darkened. These areas of increased pigmentation during pregnancy are due to the increase in the production of estrogens.

Anthropologists try to account for the fact that the genitalia are darker by suggesting that protection is needed against ultraviolet radiation damage, and has been thus evolved through natural selection. This means that protection of the genitalia against forces that may prevent reproduction was needed. Similarly, in this view, the pigmentation of the nipples during pregnancy would be a defense against ultraviolet radiation damage to the nipples. Supposedly, this type of protection would be needed while breast-feeding during the early evolution of humans in Africa. According to Robins, 1991, darker pigmentation found in the genitals, may have evolved for the "protection of reproductive capacity", in that the pigmentation protects gametes within the genitalia from ultraviolet radiation damage. This is a direct result of why white people have the lowest birthrates of all people on the planet and are going extinct. Their melanin deficiency is why their reproduction system does not work as efficiently as it should.

Whites attribute their failure of reproduction to behavioral or societal reasons. However, the reason is more a biological one. Melanin is present at the inception of life: A Melanin sheath covers both the sperm and the egg! In the human embryo, the melanocytes (skin pigment cells), brain and nerve cells all originate from the same place; the neural crest. Melanocytes resemble nerve cells and are essential for conveying energy. When Melanin is missing or insufficient in the ectoderm of the early embryo (blastula), this causes the mother to lose her baby; in the case of whites, a defective baby is produced, and over time, through inbreeding, wears down the already pathetically low levels of melanin. Reproduction stops altogether and virtual infertility is the end result.
As far as vitamin D metabolization, white people have the lowest bone density of all people on the planet. The skin is supposed to convert sunlight to Vitamin D because of 7-Dehydrocholesterol. However, white people reflect the sunlight so that the body compensates by depleting calcium from their bones. It makes whites more susceptible to kidney stones than any other race of people. The depletion of bone mass is responsible for their low bone density. It is widely regarded that black people have the strongest bones of all people from infancy to old age.

Melanin has been proven to not only being beneficial to the human reproductive system and nervous system, but melanin also plays an important part in sight and hearing. Blue eyes are simply eyes that lack melanin. Blue eyes are more sensitive to sunlight and do not process light or produce sight as efficiently as brown eyes. Isn't it funny how many people place divine qualities with blue eyes that are nothing but genetically defective?
Melanin is also said to be linked with hearing. Melanocytes are present in the inner ear, the eye, and in the membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord. It has been demonstrated that melanin deposits in these areas are proportional to the amount of melanin found in the skin. These areas of the body, similar to the skin, are exposed to high-energy free radicals that can damage the surrounding cells, and thus causes a lower threshold for hearing. Evidence shows that black people, on average, hear better than whites, and that within both races, women surpass men. A partial explanation of the differences may lie in the abundance in the inner ear of melanin pigments. Also, numerous studies have found that people with light eye colors, such as blue, green, and hazel are more vulnerable to hearing damage than are people with black or brown eyes.

The late renowned Anthropologist, Dr. Margaret Meade, in an experiment with indigenous Australians, Black Melanesian Islander children and white Anglo-Saxon children in the US, revealed that the "memory bank" of black children was greater and their "instant recall ability" from memory, outstanding. She, like most renowned researchers, concluded that black children have a deeper memory bank and hence higher IQ than their counterpart European and American Biochemists have attributed this great phenomenon to ˜neuro-melanin' - a chemical responsible for black.

In his book, "The Chemical Key to Black Greatness" American Biochemist, Carol Barnes, described melanin as, "a civilizing chemical that acts as a sedative to help keep the black human calm, relaxed, caring, creative, energetic and civilized". Research also revealed that melanin enables black skin to actively interact with the sun, to produce Vitamin D from a biochemical substance, 7- dehydrocholesterol. The study also detected that, melanin has spiritual dynamics as well as physical, since it acts as a sensory ˜receptor' and ˜transmitter'; communicating with cosmic energy fields in the vast universe converting light energy to sound energy and back. Dr. Richard King, MD, stated that, "melanin, by its ability to capture light and hold it in a memory mode, reveals that blackness converts light into knowledge".

With all of this information, we can plainly see that melanin is ESSENTIAL for the efficient performance of all of the body's natural functions. It seems a little ironic, that white people deem themselves genetically superior with the oxymoron of white supremacy. There is nothing supreme about a genetic defect. White people are merely mutated inbred albinos. This alone adds credence to them being an inferior stock. To feel better about themselves they develop totally senseless propaganda to flatter them and to make they feel better about their genetic condition at the expense of people of color. The doll test, where it has been reported that both white kids and black kids prefer WHITE dolls is solely out of ignorance, that I have termed "centuries of BRAINWASHARY." It has clearly been shown that white skin is actually indicative of albinism. Albinism is a genetic defect. Who in their right mind would prefer a genetically defective condition to one that is Nature's normal and has been proven more efficient?

This is why we need to continue our crusade to decolonize the minds of the original genetic template (black people) to see through the nonsense propagated by white people to flatter themselves. Total ignorance can be fought with knowledge. A more recent tactic white people use to appease themselves is the "Implicit Association Test." They have devised a means to make it seem as though white people are supposed to be the most desirable people on the planet and that everyone wants to be like them and be around them. If you can see through the nonsense, then you will know what I mean. Would you want to be around a bunch of paranoid genetic defects with psychological problems and with intermittently inferior genes? In a nutshell, black people, being the original genetic template are the only fully NORMAL people on the planet. White people are albinos (recessive genetic defects) and other ethnicities are merely admixtures in between.

Always remember these points, and you should never have to hold your head down to any recessive genetic defects. All phenotypes exist within the black family. Asian people are only the semi-recessive descendants of their ancestors who were a black African tribe with slanted eyes. White people are the albinos of a specific group of Africans and have inherited those people's phenotypes. They try to imply that their phenotypes were originally theirs and that if you see people of African descent with these features, they inherited them from white people. Nothing is further from the truth. Blacks are the genetic parents. Remember, whites cannot reproduce anything else but themselves. They cannot reproduce genetic material they don't have.... melanin. Therefore, they cannot reproduce us, but we can reproduce them and all others in humanity.

This should also convince you that all of the great civilizations from antiquity had to be started by us. White people with their recessive genes and poor reproductive systems, could not have lasted that long, seemingly that they are disappearing faster than anything now. Breeding with us, or breeding without us.
Peace....

Scientists Find A DNA Change That Accounts For White Skin
By Rick WeissWashington Post Staff Writer
Friday, December 16, 2005; Page A01

Scientists said yesterday that they have discovered a tiny genetic mutation that largely explains the first appearance of white skin in humans tens of thousands of years ago, a finding that helps solve one of biology's most enduring mysteries and illuminates one of humanity's greatest sources of strife.

The work suggests that the skin-whitening mutation occurred by chance in a single individual after the first human exodus from Africa, when all people were brown-skinned. That person's offspring apparently thrived as humans moved northward into what is now Europe, helping to give rise to the lightest of the world's races.

Researchers and regulators are reshaping the landscape of science, medicine and health, engendering hope -- and disquiet -- for the future of humanity.

Leaders of the study, at Penn State University, warned against interpreting the finding as a discovery of "the race gene." Race is a vaguely defined biological, social and political concept, they noted, and skin color is only part of what race is -- and is not.

In fact, several scientists said, the new work shows just how small a biological difference is reflected by skin color. The newly found mutation involves a change of just one letter of DNA code out of the 3.1 billion letters in the human genome -- the complete instructions for making a human being.

"It's a major finding in a very sensitive area," said Stephen Oppenheimer, an expert in anthropological genetics at Oxford University, who was not involved in the work. "Almost all the differences used to differentiate populations from around the world really are skin deep."

The work raises a raft of new questions -- not least of which is why white skin caught on so thoroughly in northern climes once it arose. Some scientists suggest that lighter skin offered a strong survival advantage for people who migrated out of Africa by boosting their levels of bone-strengthening vitamin D; others have posited that its novelty and showiness simply made it more attractive to those seeking mates.

The work also reveals for the first time that Asians owe their relatively light skin to different mutations. That means that light skin arose independently at least twice in human evolution, in each case affecting populations with the facial and other traits that today are commonly regarded as the hallmarks of Caucasian and Asian races.

Several sociologists and others said they feared that such revelations might wrongly overshadow the prevailing finding of genetics over the past 10 years: that the number of DNA differences between races is tiny compared with the range of genetic diversity found within any single racial group.
Even study leader Keith Cheng said he was at first uncomfortable talking about the new work, fearing that the finding of such a clear genetic difference between people of African and European ancestries might reawaken discredited assertions of other purported inborn differences between races -- the most long-standing and inflammatory of those being intelligence.

"I think human beings are extremely insecure and look to visual cues of sameness to feel better, and people will do bad things to people who look different," Cheng said.

The discovery, described in today's issue of the journal Science, was an unexpected outgrowth of studies Cheng and his colleagues were conducting on inch-long zebra fish, which are popular research tools for geneticists and developmental biologists. Having identified a gene that, when mutated, interferes with its ability to make its characteristic black stripes, the team scanned human DNA databases to see if a similar gene resides in people.

To their surprise, they found virtually identical pigment-building genes in humans, chickens, dogs, cows and many others species, an indication of its biological value.
They got a bigger surprise when they looked in a new database comparing the genomes of four of the world's major racial groups. That showed that whites with northern and western European ancestry have a mutated version of the gene.

Skin color is a reflection of the amount and distribution of the pigment melanin, which in humans protects against damaging ultraviolet rays but in other species is also used for camouflage or other purposes. The mutation that deprives zebra fish of their stripes blocks the creation of a protein whose job is to move charged atoms across cell membranes, an obscure process that is crucial to the accumulation of melanin inside cells.

Researchers and regulators are reshaping the landscape of science, medicine and health, engendering hope -- and disquiet -- for the future of humanity.

Humans of European descent, Cheng's team found, bear a slightly different mutation that hobbles the same protein with similar effect. The defect does not affect melanin deposition in other parts of the body, including the hair and eyes, whose tints are under the control of other genes.

A few genes have previously been associated with human pigment disorders -- most notably those that, when mutated, lead to albinism, an extreme form of pigment loss. But the newly found glitch is the first found to play a role in the formation of "normal" white skin. The Penn State team calculates that the gene, known as slc24a5, is responsible for about one-third of the pigment loss that made black skin white. A few other as-yet-unidentified mutated genes apparently account for the rest.

Although precise dating is impossible, several scientists speculated on the basis of its spread and variation that the mutation arose between 20,000 and 50,000 years ago. That would be consistent with research showing that a wave of ancestral humans migrated northward and eastward out of Africa about 50,000 years ago.

Unlike most mutations, this one quickly overwhelmed its ancestral version, at least in Europe, suggesting it had a real benefit. Many scientists suspect that benefit has to do with vitamin D, made in the body with the help of sunlight and critical to proper bone development.

Sun intensity is great enough in equatorial regions that the vitamin can still be made in dark-skinned people despite the ultraviolet shielding effects of melanin. In the north, where sunlight is less intense and cold weather demands that more clothing be worn, melanin's ultraviolet shielding became a liability, the thinking goes.

Today that solar requirement is largely irrelevant because many foods are supplemented with vitamin D.
Some scientists said they suspect that white skin's rapid rise to genetic dominance may also be the product of "sexual selection," a phenomenon of evolutionary biology in which almost any new and showy trait in a healthy individual can become highly prized by those seeking mates, perhaps because it provides evidence of genetic innovativeness.
Cheng and co-worker Victor A. Canfield said their discovery could have practical spinoffs. A gene so crucial to the buildup of melanin in the skin might be a good target for new drugs against melanoma, for example, a cancer of melanin cells in which slc24a5 works overtime.

But they and others agreed that, for better or worse, the finding's most immediate impact may be an escalating debate about the meaning of race.

Recent revelations that all people are more than 99.9 percent genetically identical has proved that race has almost no biological validity. Yet geneticists' claims that race is a phony construct have not rung true to many nonscientists -- and understandably so, said Vivian Ota Wang of the National Human Genome Research Institute in Bethesda.
"You may tell people that race isn't real and doesn't matter, but they can't catch a cab," Ota Wang said. "So unless we take that into account it makes us sound crazy."

http://www.myspace.com/pandemoniumgabriel



Sexual selection???? Sounds familiar.....

Elijah Muhammad taught along these lines....


Kai
what???........


"The work raises a raft of new questions -- not least of which is why white skin caught on so thoroughly in northern climes once it arose. Some scientists suggest that lighter skin offered a strong survival advantage........

-------others have posited that its novelty and showiness simply made it more attractive to those seeking mates.

----------------------------

"The work also reveals for the first time that Asians owe their relatively light skin to different mutations. That means that light skin arose independently at least twice in human evolution, in each case affecting populations with the facial and other traits that today are commonly regarded as the hallmarks of Caucasian and Asian races.--------

(if/when this is 'proven, darwinism will reign its head in a more virulent manner. yikes!)


Interesting find 'Kai'.
Nayo---the key/operative word here is 'melanin'!!!

This hormmone [found in every organ of the body--even the reproductive system] is greatly depleted in the "whites" -- period.

It is the 'only' [natural] sun screen that protects against the suns' gamma rays.

I don't trust "Western" mentality on the subject of skin survival as far as I can throw them....!

The point of my post was to enforce the fact that we are a dominant race in spite of what the naysayers report...!
Panama's Indian albinos a revered elite
Mon Mar 13, 2006 8:02 AM ET

By Mike Power

ISLA TIGRE, Panama (Reuters) - When Kuna Indian medicine man Mandiuliguina Flores speaks, everyone listens. For his dark-skinned indigenous audience, the albino shaman's milky white skin gives him special powers.

In a quirk of history and genetics, Panama's Kuna tribe has one of the world's highest occurrences of albinos, revered as an elite group that the Kuna call "the children of the moon".

Kuna mythology puts albinos -- who have pale skin and white or ginger hair due to pigment deficiency -- at the heart of creation, teaching that God sent his albino son to Earth to teach humans how to live.

Even today, the Kuna see albinos as highly intelligent and some even claim they have supernatural powers.

"I can heal any snake bite," said healer Flores outside his thatched hut on tiny Isla Tigre island, his pale-yellow eyes flitting around in their sockets, a side-effect of his albinism, and his ginger hair peeping out from his pork-pie hat.

"I attend to women in childbirth. I can remove stuck fish bones from your throat with this pill, and I can cure headaches by touching your head," he said.

"He can tell your future, too," whispered one bystander.

The Kuna, known for their colorful and intricate woven fabrics and indigenous dress, live on a string of remote islands running 200 miles along Panama's Caribbean coast toward Colombia.

They moved here from the rain forests of eastern Panama in the mid-1800s to avoid mosquitoes, snakes, diseases and territorial rivalry. They farm on the mainland and sleep on the islands, an autonomous territory known as Kuna Yala.

Charles Woolf, an anthropologist at Arizona State University, says the incidence of albinism here is higher than any comparable population on the planet.

A BLESSING, NOT A CURSE

In the United States, among white people of European descent, albinism overall occurs at a rate of 1 in 30,000-40,000. On some islands in Kuna Yala, the rate stands at 1 in 165.

Anthropologists attribute the high frequency to cultural protection of albinos and the slaughter wrought by Spanish conquistadors in the 16th century.

The Spaniards devastated the Kuna with attacks or diseases, reducing the islands' founding gene pool to only 5,000 people from a population that once hit 750,000.

While Kuna warriors fought off the Spanish and carried out revenge attacks, albinos would stay indoors to avoid sunlight.

They survived where their compatriots were slaughtered by Spanish muskets.

Albino skin is sensitive to sunlight and burns easily, and the genetic disorder could easily be seen as a curse in the blisteringly hot tropics.

But to be born albino in Kuna Yala is to be born into a revered group whose importance is enshrined in Kuna cosmology.

In a self-fulfilling prophecy, many albinos in this culture become community leaders, medicine men, shamans, politicians or entrepreneurs.

"With advancing civilization and the availability of economic opportunities for albinos out of the sunshine that were not available previously, they have done well in some cases, with some becoming high achievers," said Woolf.

The head of the Kuna General Congress of Culture, IkwaYokkiler Ferrer is albino. He commands widespread respect in Kuna communities for his work preserving their culture and traditions.

BRINGERS OF LIGHT

Weegi Baller, a 12-year-old albino on Rio Sidra, is one of seven albinos on this tiny, cramped island of more than 1,000 people. His sister Elederis, 13, and is also albino.

Weegi helps his mother with chores around the house as his skin is too fair to venture outdoors. But once, during an eclipse, he showed his powers, says his mother.

Her young son climbed onto the roof of the hut with a bow and arrow and fired it at the moon which was covering the sun. "The sun suddenly came out," she said, beaming proudly.

Saila Aurelio Meza Smith, the chief of Isla Tigre, where the Kuna violently overthrew Panamanian forces in a 1925 rebellion, says albinos' powers can be supernatural.

"I saw an albino grab an angry snake by the neck. It did him no harm. I saw the same albino smash a wasp's nest open, but he was not stung. The same albino once dived from a high tree into a shallow river. He swam out, laughing. That is the power of an albino," he said.

This respect wasn't always apparent, however. Anthropologists say in the past some parents even killed newborn albino babies.

"Marriage discrimination against albinos and infanticide of albinos were common during the early part of the 20th century," said Woolf.

Nowadays, though, it seems revered albinos have only themselves to fear.

Medicine man Flores says the powers of a few moon children are waning. "Some of them go to dances and are involved in drugs and chase women, so they have lost some of their powers," he said.
quote:
Originally posted by Philippe:
Remember, whites cannot reproduce anything else but themselves. They cannot reproduce genetic material they don't have.... melanin. Therefore, they cannot reproduce us, but we can reproduce them and all others in humanity.


Whites are albinos because Blacks come in those with no melanin and those with melanin?

Urmmm. . .No. Whites have both varieties, too, which is why there are Whites with albinism and those without.

Even albinos can have children with melanin and those without. A Black albino who is as white as snow can have a deep chocolate child.

But let's say those are lies that I've just spewed and ignore it. How would the diversity in complexions among Africans prove that Whites are inferior because they don't have the same diversity?

Are Blacks inferior because we lack their diversity in eye and hair color?

It shouldn't take pseudo science for us to feel good about ourselves.
The need for blood is a natural condition of the albino people with his many diseases, he needs blood to keep his race alive. Hemophilia is a form of Vampirism"”The Hemophiliac is in constant need of blood. Albinos (those suffering from albinism, a disease which causes the lack of pigmentation in the cells) have to undergo a complete blood transfusion at birth. Since their blood does not contain the necessary factors for clotting or the salt necessary for reproduction; these blood transfusions must continue regularly throughout their lives! This is vampirism!!!
Haven't you ever wondered why for the simplest blood tests your doctor needs 4 tubes of blood? Where is all this blood going? The albino man's "blood bank" is just a sophisticated way of getting all the blood he needs! It is still a form of vampirism.
you can get the recessive from the dominant but you cant get the dominant from the recessive. Its simple science , Big T little t. It all goes back to the first man and woman found in Africa dating back millions of years at this point. No other human being on earth has been hear anywhere near the amount of time the African has. He is the original inhabitant of the Earth all other sub categories come from him PERIOD!
quote:
Originally posted by Philippe:
The need for blood is a natural condition of the albino people with his many diseases, he needs blood to keep his race alive. Hemophilia is a form of Vampirism"”The Hemophiliac is in constant need of blood. Albinos (those suffering from albinism, a disease which causes the lack of pigmentation in the cells) have to undergo a complete blood transfusion at birth. Since their blood does not contain the necessary factors for clotting or the salt necessary for reproduction; these blood transfusions must continue regularly throughout their lives! This is vampirism!!!
Haven't you ever wondered why for the simplest blood tests your doctor needs 4 tubes of blood? Where is all this blood going? The albino man's "blood bank" is just a sophisticated way of getting all the blood he needs! It is still a form of vampirism.


Confused
quote:
Originally posted by Philippe:
The need for blood is a natural condition of the albino people with his many diseases, he needs blood to keep his race alive. Hemophilia is a form of Vampirism"”The Hemophiliac is in constant need of blood. Albinos (those suffering from albinism, a disease which causes the lack of pigmentation in the cells) have to undergo a complete blood transfusion at birth. Since their blood does not contain the necessary factors for clotting or the salt necessary for reproduction; these blood transfusions must continue regularly throughout their lives! This is vampirism!!!
Haven't you ever wondered why for the simplest blood tests your doctor needs 4 tubes of blood? Where is all this blood going? The albino man's "blood bank" is just a sophisticated way of getting all the blood he needs! It is still a form of vampirism.



Please stop spreading quasi-sciencific hogwash!

Albinism is not a curse ...

By: Wilson Dzebu

Albinism could not stop Thembiso Nemutanzhela from achieving what she set out to do in life. People with albinism were in some communities regarded as outcasts but Thembiso, from Thohoyandou, has successfully proven that hard work is the only key to success. "I am a human being like everyone because I was created by God. The fact that I have the albinistic condition does not make me different from other community members..." Despite all the odds, Thembiso is making a name for herself in the local gospel music industry and she is also paving her way to educational success. She is the lead singer of the group Miracle Christian Church Worship Team and she is a first-year mechanical engineering student at the University of Johannesburg. While growing up in a highly religious family, her parents always reminded her that she was their beautiful gift from God. "My father, Pastor Jonathan Nemutanzhela, and my mother, Grace, told me that they thanked God because He had given them a wonderful gift in me. The conditions under which one grows up are very important in either building or destroying one's confidence. Although some kids looked down upon me at school, my parents' words built up my confidence and I faced life with pride until I had become what I am today. People should stop looking down upon us because we have the ability of making things happen like anyone else ..." The first-born daughter of four kids in her family, Thembiso says she is proud of her albinism because God had a reason for bringing her in this world. "I'm proud and beautiful and I thank God for bringing me into this world. I am confident of achieving more in life despite my albinism. I will always work hard to prove my critics wrong who think albinism is a stumbling block to success..." Thembiso' sweet voice and flexible dancing skills have earned her respect whenever she performs in live shows. "I fell in love with music at an early age and I persevered until the recording of our album, Thandululo, which has been received well in the market. People kept on telling me that I could sing and I later took music seriously, hence everyone loves my music ..." She encourages other community members with albinism to stop hiding themselves and show the world that they are gifted. "We have to use our talents effectively and forget about albinism. We must never forget to go to school because education is the only foundation for prosperity. I will never give up in life because I know I am capable of achieving more than what is expected from me ..." Thembiso says she is equally surprised and disappointed by people who look at her with sympathy. "Why feel sorry for me because there is nothing wrong with me? Albinism is just a skin condition, but all in all, we are all human beings ..."

Published April 1, 2006

(Photo by LISA DEJONG/Associated Press)
Group's founders: Debbie Wilson (left) and Francia Malone, shown in Flint earlier this month, have co-founded the Flint Area Albinism Network. Wilson and Malone, who are black, want to shed more light on the condition.
 

Flint group offers help to those with albinism

Black women form nonprofit network to assist, educate
 

By Rose Mary Reiz
Associated Press

 

FLINT TOWNSHIP - Strangers used to come up and ask Francia Malone's parents if she was adopted. Debbie Wilson's classmates would taunt and hit her.

When they weren't fighting other kids, Malone and Wilson were fighting their sense of confusion and isolation.

Both are black and have albinism, a term they prefer to the word "albino."

Malone and Wilson are living proof that the condition occurs in all ethnic groups and that it doesn't always look the same.

Malone, a Flint Township businesswoman, has caramel-colored skin, auburn hair and light brown eyes. Wilson, a rehabilitation counselor, has blue eyes and skin the color of cream-tinted coffee.

Her natural hair is light blond, but she chooses to color it.

"People have told me, 'You should go with your natural (hair) color. You'd be so striking,' " Wilson said. "But I don't want to be striking. I've had enough of 'striking' to last me a lifetime."

Years of teasing

Both women endured years of teasing, stares and questions about why they looked so different from their families and classmates.

"Kids used to call me 'Goldilocks' and 'Redhead.' One girl called me blind because I couldn't see the board at school," Malone said. "I remember spitting on her and getting paddled for it."

Malone often ran into things she couldn't see. An eye doctor prescribed glasses but never did the test that would have diagnosed her with albinism.

Wilson's condition also was misunderstood.

"I have an older brother and sister with albinism, and my dad used to take my sister outside in the sun to try to darken her up," she recalled. "He didn't understand why we were so light.

"At school, kids would call us 'albino.' I'd get beaten up on the walk home. All three of us ended up getting into a lot of fights."

Malone and Wilson hope to help others who might be exposed to the same ridicule and confusion.

Help for others

Last year, they started the Flint Area Albinism Network, a nonprofit organization to address the needs of individuals and families living with albinism in Genesee County and the greater Thumb area.

Their first goal is to help educate the public about the often misunderstood and misdiagnosed condition.

Albinism is an inherited condition that affects 1 in 17,000 people in the United States. In addition to noticeably reduced pigment in the skin and hair, most people with albinism have low vision and are considered legally blind. Many are sensitive to bright lights.

There are two basic types of albinism. One involves almost no pigmentation. The other is characterized by slight pigmentation.

A common myth is that people with albinism are deaf and have red eyes. Deafness is not associated with albinism. Some people with albinism do have reddish or violet eyes, but most have blue eyes. Some have hazel or brown eyes.

Most children with albinism are born to parents who have normal hair and eye color. For nearly all types of albinism, both parents must carry an albinism gene to have a child with the condition. When both parents carry the gene and neither parent has albinism, there is a 1-in-4 chance that the baby will be born with albinism.

No simple test for gene

There is no simple test to determine whether a parent carries the gene.

Although Malone and Wilson both are legally blind and must use special telescopic lenses to see distances, neither considers albinism a disability.

Malone is the owner of Francia's Home Care Service. In 2002, she was selected as honorary co-chairperson for the Small Business Advisory Council in Washington, D.C., and received the organization's National Leadership Award.

Wilson is a 12-year rehabilitation counselor for the Michigan Commission for the Blind, where she helps clients obtain employment and independence. She is a single mother of a 21-year-old son, who does not have albinism.

"When he was in first grade," Wilson said, "he asked me, 'Mom, are we white?'

"I said 'No, we're not white. Mom just can't make color.'


 
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I personally never thought of the current type as a curse; since I "know" albinos are black.

My beginning dialog was to spark other opinions and facts that center around Caucasian evolution.

Scientifically our genes are dominant theirs recessive. We are the parent; they the children. Albinism is an ancient link to their evolvement, that I do know that....
quote:
Originally posted by Philippe:
No,sciencific fact!



Dude...you are killing me! Hemophiliacs are not vampires; besides hemophhiliacs are no longer given whole blood anymore; the practice is over ten years old. They simply are missing the gene for a specific cloting factor (factor 8 in hemophillia A and factor 9 in hemophilia B). With the evolution of apheresis, whole blood is not neccessary...and is rarely given.

Salt and reproduction? ok...please stop!
http://members.optusnet.com.au/~msafier/albinism/albino3.html

Objectively speaking:

All ethnic groups in the world originate from the main African Black root, period.

Therefore, when other ethnic groups produce albinism children it is because these 'other' ethnic groups carry the original trait of the main African Black root in a recessive gene, period.

However, the rub is--that--all of these other ethnic groups can never produce the main African Black root which is totally dominate!

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