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8. Beatrice Lumpkin (1988) and Margaret Alic (1986) have both described the life of Hypatia, " For fifteen centuries Hypatia was often considered to be the only female scientist in history. Hypatia is the earliest woman scientist whose life is well documented" (Alic, 1986, p. 41). Lumpkin provides evidence that Hypatia was not Greek and instead was an Egyptian and thus of African origin. It seems that contrary to the customs of Greek women at that time, "Hypatia remained unmarried and moved freely and publicly in her scientific pursuits" (Lumpkin, 1988, p. 155). Hypatia lectured on mathematics, philosophy, physics and astronomy (Lumpkin, 1988). She wrote important treatises on Algebra and Conic sections. Hypatia is credited with designing an astrolabe, a water still, an instrument to measure water level and an hydrometer (Alic, 1986, p. 44). Hypatia refused to convert to Christianity and in 415 A.D. she was murdered brutally by Christian fanatics (Lumpkin, 1988).