African American/Black Indians In American West History

 
April 27, 2006 11:10 PM

Black Indians want a place in history

In April 2002, celebrations of the 500 years of black Indian culture are planned for sites of major historical and cultural significance - the pilgrimage of unification itself; an honoring of 'Mother Life'
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By Nomad Winterhawk
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It happened that life crossed Africans and Native Americans together into one circle.
This was in April, 1502, when the first Africans kidnapped were brought to Hispanola to serve as slaves. Some escaped and somewhere inland on Santo Dominico life birthed the first circle of Black Indians.

Some black Indians have a dual ancestry of African and Native American bloodlines. Others are black people who have lived with Native Americans and maintain their cultural-ceremonial traditions.

The seizure and mistreatment of Native Americans and their land, and the enslavement of Native Americans and Africans, were the two parallel institutions that resulted in the Black Indian culture.{snip}

http://www.africanamericans.com/BlackIndians.htm
 
 
 
A1
 
April 27, 2006 11:51 PM

There are Black Caribs in St. Vincent, Belize, Honduras, and Guatemala.

They are called Garifuna, too.

The most popular story says that they are descendants of shipwrecked West African slaves and the Yellow Caribs of St. Vincent and the Grenadines. However another story was that the Africans went to the country before that as pre-Columbian explorers.

They had a hybrid culture.

Lead by Chief Chatoyer, they put up a pretty good fight against the colonists and Yellow Caribs. But when they eventually lost, the British deported many of them to Central America.

They weren't enslaved, but they faced a lot of discrimination and were ostracized in their new countries.

Many of the Blacks in those countries are Garifuna.

It's an interesting history.
 
 
 
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April 28, 2006 2:44 PM

The September 2001 issue of National Geographic contains an excellent piece on The Garifuna People.

Oshun Auset, a long-time member on this board posted the following:

Posted March 02, 2006 05:30 PM March 02, 2006 05:30 PMGarífunas sign accord with new Honduras president


Honduras' new president, José Manuel "Mel" Zelaya Rosales, won the November 27, 2005 presidential elections because of his promise to look for resolutions to the country's problems.

While his main opponent in the race, the National Party of Honduras' (PNH's) Porfirio Pepe Lobo, was a strict hardliner, Zelaya, a member of the Liberal Party of Honduras (Partido Liberal de Honduras, PLH), campaigned with a more moderate approach to issues.

Now, the nation's Black population is planning to hold Zelaya to his promises.

The president-elect took office on January 27, 2006. And, in preparation for his transition to power, Zelaya sat down in Tegucigalpa, the nation's capital, with Celeo Alvarez Casildo, president of the Organización Negra Centroamericana/Central American Black Organization (ONECA – the largest umbrella organization for Black communities in Central America and the Caribbean) and other representatives of Honduras' Black communities to talk about the campaign promises made to Afro Hondurans and how the new president plans on fulfilling them.

Back on May 26, 2005, when he was initiating his political campaign, Zelaya signed an accord with Afro Hondurans. He promised that, if he won the presidency with their support, he would make every effort to see that their concerns are addressed.

During his 2006 through 2010 term of office, Zelaya has agreed to finalize terms for the government's granting of land titles to Honduras' Garífuna. If Zelayo lives up to his promise, he could help end a battle Afro Honduran communities have been waging for decades.

The majority of Afro Hondurans are known as Garífuna, descendants of Africans and Carib-Indians who resisted slavery and were able to retain their own language – a patois of Creole, Bambu, and Patua – and to live independently for years.

Because of many have immigrated, Garífuna communities have spread out across Central America, the Caribbean, and the United States in the last few decades. Yet, historically, the Garífuna were established in the countries of Belize, Guatemala, Panama, and Honduras and along the coastlines of Nicaragua, Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela.

Garífuna have long faced discrimination...

Latin America's Garífuna have long faced discrimination and have had to struggle to be politically incorporated within their nations of origin, so Zelaya's campaign promises did not come out of a vacuum. Garífuna have lived in specific areas of Honduras for the past 200 years and they have petitioned for title to those lands for years now.
Various Honduran governments have granted a few small landholding titles, and yet remained reluctant to negotiate the rest. But the community gained respect after more than 5,000 people marched on Tegucigalpa in the late '90s and demanded land titles rather than watch their lands sold after being devastated by 1998s Hurricane Mitch.

Government officials had proposed a reform of the Constitution's Article 107, a law that prohibits Honduran land from being sold to non-citizens. But the Garífuna march stopped the reform: protestors noted that any reform of the law would have allowed for the sale of traditional Garífuna lands along Honduras' Atlantic Coast.

"They have not been able to reform that law," says Mirtha Colón, a United States-based ONECA member. "But they've made efforts to change it by changing other laws that affect Article 107."

Changing Honduran land ownership laws gives multinational companies the opportunity to buy land and develop tourist hotels, resorts, and casinos in Garífuna territories: areas that are extremely underdeveloped yet have the advantage of being situated along the nation's picturesque coastline. It has already drastically affected communities in places like Cayos Cochinos, which – the Garífuna were told – was by law set aside as a nature preserve; today the area boasts a tourist attraction named the Plantation Beach Resort.

Garífuna living in the areas of San Juan, Miami, Tornavé, and Triunfo de la Cruz were also initially told their territories would be part of a nature preserve. But when it was announced that a multimillion-dollar tourist resort and casino would be built in the area, the Garífuna demanded title to some parts of the land for their own communities.

Even with the granting of community land titles, Colón says Garífuna are often harassed into leaving their traditional homes: a family's livestock will be killed or their house burned down. "This is why we are afraid, because many people then have to move to the city," she said.

"Or they may have to try to enter the United States illegally. But people have to do something to survive."

Mel Zelaya has pledged that his administration will sponsor a study looking into how much funds sent to Honduras from abroad have been needed to help sustain Garífuna communities. And his new government will tackle racism in Honduras, by sponsoring public service announcements against racial discrimination and by working with Afro Hondurans to sponsor events celebrating the April 12th commemoration of the 18th century Garífuna escape from slavery and arrival of in Punta Gorda, Honduras.

The agreement with the new president also promises increased job creation, and that new health care centers, schools, and roads will be built in Garífuna regions. Garífunas can also expect to see electric, telephone, in-door plumbing and other basic services brought to their territorial areas.

PEACE

Jim Chester
 
 
 
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April 28, 2006 2:50 PM

You may know of the Pequoits and Mohegans of Connecticutt.

Most don't know they acquired an African ancestry in their tribal ancestry when they were expatriated to The Caribbean in the late 1600s by the New World Colonists to enable the theft of their land.

Certainly, the local residents of this area don't know of that ancestry as they embrace the latest expansion of the gaming interests of The Mohegans as they build a 5000-unit slot casino at their newly acquired (horse) race track.

My, my, my.

PEACE

Jim Chester
 
 
 
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April 28, 2006 9:13 PM

Originally posted by ma'am:

There are Black Caribs in St. Vincent, Belize, Honduras, and Guatemala.

They are called Garifuna, too.

The most popular story says that they are descendants of shipwrecked West African slaves and the Yellow Caribs of St. Vincent and the Grenadines. However another story was that the Africans went to the country before that as pre-Columbian explorers.

They had a hybrid culture.

Lead by Chief Chatoyer, they put up a pretty good fight against the colonists and Yellow Caribs. But when they eventually lost, the British deported many of them to Central America.

They weren't enslaved, but they faced a lot of discrimination and were ostracized in their new countries.

Many of the Blacks in those countries are Garifuna.

It's an interesting history.

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Sounds like an interesting history.

I'll have to read more about them. Thanks.Smile
 
 
 
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April 28, 2006 9:25 PM

Originally posted by James Wesley Chester:
The September 2001 issue of National Geographic contains an excellent piece on The Garifuna People.

Oshun Auset, a long-time member on this board posted the following:

Posted March 02, 2006 05:30 PM March 02, 2006 05:30 PMGarífunas sign accord with new Honduras president


Honduras' new president, José Manuel "Mel" Zelaya Rosales, won the November 27, 2005 presidential elections because of his promise to look for resolutions to the country's problems.

While his main opponent in the race, the National Party of Honduras' (PNH's) Porfirio Pepe Lobo, was a strict hardliner, Zelaya, a member of the Liberal Party of Honduras (Partido Liberal de Honduras, PLH), campaigned with a more moderate approach to issues.{snip}

PEACE

Jim Chester

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Wow. Thanks for reposting this information.

I'll make a copy of this post to read more thoroughly later. Thanks again. Smile
 
 
 
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April 28, 2006 9:30 PM

Originally posted by James Wesley Chester:
You may know of the Pequoits and Mohegans of Connecticutt.

Most don't know they acquired an African ancestry in their tribal ancestry when they were expatriated to The Caribbean in the late 1600s by the New World Colonists to enable the theft of their land.

Certainly, the local residents of this area don't know of that ancestry as they embrace the latest expansion of the gaming interests of The Mohegans as they build a 5000-unit slot casino at their newly acquired (horse) race track.

My, my, my.

PEACE

Jim Chester

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This ^ made me smile. Smile Yep--my, my, my. . .

. . .Wonders never cease.
 
 
 
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